Mining is an important industry, accounting for 6.9% of global GDP. However, global development promotes accelerated demand, resulting in the accumulation of hazardous waste in land, sea, and air environments. It reached 7 billion tonnes of mine tailings generated yearly worldwide, and 19 billion solid tailings will be accumulated by 2025. Adding to this, the legacy of environmental damage from abandoned mines is worrying; in Canada there are around 10,000 abandoned mines, 50,000 in Australia, 6,000 in South Africa, and 9,500 coal mines in China, reaching 15,000 by 2050. In this scenario, restoration techniques from mining tailing have become increasingly discussed among scholars due to their potential to offer benefits towards reducing tailings levels, thereby reducing environmental pressure for the correct management and adding value to previously discarded waste. This review paper explores available literature on the main techniques of mining tailing recycling and reuse and discusses leading technologies, including the benefits and limitations, as well as emerging prospects. The findings of this review serve as a supporting reference for decision-makers concerning the related sustainability issues associated with mining, mineral processing, and solid waste management.
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