ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0492.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: LMIC; Global South; indicator; Random Forrest
Online: 1 April 2022 (06:22:53 CEST)
Disaggregated population counts are needed to calculate health, economic, and development indicators in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), especially in settings of rapid urbanisation. Censuses are often outdated and inaccurate in LMIC settings, and rarely disaggregated at fine geographic scale. Modelled gridded population datasets derived from census data have become widely used by development researchers and practitioners. These datasets are evaluated for accuracy at the spatial scale of the input data which is often much courser (e.g. administrative units) than the neighbourhood or cell-level scale of many applications. We simulate a realistic "true" 2016 population in Khomas, Namibia, a majority urban region, and introduce realistic levels of outdatedness (over 15 years) and inaccuracy in slum, non-slum, and rural areas. We aggregate these simulated realistic populations by census and administrative boundaries (to mimic census data), and generate 32 gridded population datasets that are typical of a LMIC setting using WorldPop-Global-Unconstrained gridded population approach. We evaluate the cell-level accuracy of these simulated datasets using the original "true" population as a reference. In our simulation, we found large cell-level errors, particularly in slum cells, driven by the use of average population densities in large areal units to determine cell-level population densities. Age, accuracy, and aggregation of the input data also played a role in these errors. We suggest incorporating finer-scale training data into gridded population models generally, and WorldPop-Global-Unconstrained in particular (e.g., from routine household surveys or slum community population counts), and use of new building footprint datasets as a covariate to improve cell-level accuracy. It is important to measure accuracy of gridded population datasets at spatial scales more consistent with how the data are being applied, especially if they are to be used for monitoring key development indicators at neighbourhood scales with relevance to small dense deprived areas within larger administrative units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; RIL; Forrest; Williams 82; linkage map; RFOs; sucrose; raffinose; stachyose; SNP
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:50:41 CEST)
Soybean seed sugars are among the most abundant beneficial compounds for human and animal consumption in soybean seeds. Higher seed sugars such as sucrose are desirable as it contributes to taste and flavor in soy-based food. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use ‘Forrest’ by ‘Williams 82’ (F×W82) recombinant inbred line (RIL) soybean population (n=309) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes that control seed sugar (sucrose, stachyose, and raffinose) contents in two environments (North Carolina and Illinois) over two years (2018 and 2020). A total of 26 QTL that control seed sugars contents were identified and mapped on 16 soybean chromosomes (chrs.). Interestingly, five QTL regions were identified in both locations, Illinois and North Carolina, in this study on chrs. 2, 5, 13, 17, and 20. Amongst 57 candidate genes identified in this study, 16 were located within 10 Megabase (MB) of the identified QTL. Amongst them a cluster of four genes involved in the sugars’ pathway was collocated within 6 MB with two QTL that were detected in this study on chr. 17. Further functional validation of the identified genes could be beneficial in breeding programs to produce soybean lines with high beneficial sucrose and low raffinose family oligosaccharides.