ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fabaceae; bioinformatics; molecular markers; neglected crop; genomics
Online: 19 January 2023 (03:57:25 CET)
Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (Fabaceae), “tarwi” or “chocho”, is an important grain legume in the Andean region. In Peru, studies on tarwi have been mainly focused on morphological features, however, the have not been molecularly characterized. Currently, it is possible to explore genetic parameters of plants with reliable and modern methods like genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). We here for the first time used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers to infer the genetic diversity and population structure of 89 accessions of tarwi from nine Andean regions of Peru. A total of 5922 SNPs distributed along all chromosomes of tarwi were identified. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that this crop is grouped into two clusters. A dendrogram was generated using the UPGMA clustering algorithm and, similar to the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), it showed two groups that correspond to the geographic origin of the tarwi samples. AMOVA showed a reduced variation between clusters (7.59 %) and indicated that variability within populations is 92.41 %. Population divergence (Fst) between clusters 1 and 2 revealed low genetic difference (0.019). We also detected a negative Fis for both populations, demonstrating that, similar to other Lupinus species, tarwi also depends on cross-pollination. SNPs markers were powerful and effective for the genotyping process in this germplasm. We hope that this information is the beginning of the path towards a modern genetic improvement and conservation strategies of this important Andean legume.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forestry seeds; fabaceae; seedling production; seed bank
Online: 31 March 2020 (04:21:07 CEST)
Hymenaea courbaril is an endangered species, promising to reforestation programs and mainly explored as a wood source. The available information concerning long-term storage methods, seed recalcitrance, parental, and substrate influence is scarce. This study focused on the seed behavior according to population origin and during one-year storage, also testing the efficiency of the low-temperature conservation. Variations between the uncertainty indexes were found to the studied populations after long-term storage. There was no significant loss of the germination potential in consequence of the prolonged storage period. Although, older seeds promoted gradually greater delayed germination. Germination speed, synchrony, and uncertainty indexes were substantially different between the -20° conservation and control. H. courbaril seeds are capable of long-term storage without losing their germination potential, indicating an orthodox behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0928.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Fabaceae; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics; low doses; abiotic stress
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:39:57 CEST)
Our understanding of the long-term consequences of chronic ionising radiation for living organisms remains scarce. Modern molecular biology techniques are helpful tools for researching pollutant effects on biota. To reveal the molecular phenotype of plants growing under chronic radiation exposure, we sampled Vicia cracca L. plants in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in areas with normal radiation backgrounds. We performed a detailed analysis of soil and gene expression patterns, and made coordinated multi-omics analyses of plant samples, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Chronic exposure to ionising radiation induced complex and multidirectional changes, including significant alterations in the metabolism and gene expression patterns of irradiated plants. We revealed profound changes in carbon metabolism, nitrogen reallocation, and photosynthesis. These plants were characterised by increased DNA damage, redox imbalance, and stress response reactions. The upregulation of histones, chaperones, peroxidases, and secondary metabolism were noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agroecology; seed dormancy; plant establishment; germination; climate change; Poaceae; Brassicaceae; Fabaceae
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:45:04 CEST)
Cover crops as living plant or mulch can suppress weeds by reducing weed germination, emergence and growth, either through direct competition for resources, allelopathy, or by providing a physical barrier to emergence. Farmers implementing conservation agriculture, organic farming or agroecological principles are increasingly adopting cover crop as part of their farming strategy. However, cover crop adoption remains limited by poor and/or unstable establishment in dry conditions, weediness of cover crop volunteers is subsequent cash crops, and seed cost. This study is the first one to review the literature on seed traits of cover crops, their germination response to different biotic and abiotic factors aiming to improve seed germination and seedling establishment. Knowledge on seed traits would be helpful in choosing suitable cover crop species and/or mixture adapted to specific environments. Such information is crucial to improve cover crops establishment, growth, provision of ecosystem services, while allowing farmers to save seeds and therefore money. We discuss how to improve cover crop establishment by seed priming and coating, and appropriate seed sowing depth. Here, three cover crop families namely Poaceae, Brassicaceae, and Fabaceae, were examined in terms of seed traits and response to environmental conditions. The review showed that seed traits related to germination are crucial as they affect the germination timing and establishment of the cover crop, consequently soil coverage uniformity, factors that directly related to their suppressive effect on weeds. Poaceae and Brassicaceae exhibit higher germination percentage than Fabaceae under water deficit conditions. Seed dormancy of some Fabaceae species/cultivars limits their agricultural use of as cover crops because the domestication of some wild ecotypes is not complete. Understanding genetic and environmental regulating seed dormancy is necessary. Appropriate selection of cover crop cultivars is crucial to improve cover crop establishment and provide multiple ecosystem services including weed suppression, particularly in a climate change context.