ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: anti-infective; antimicrobial; antimicrobial resistance; behaviour change; healthcare workers; antimicrobial stewardship
Online: 18 July 2022 (05:42:12 CEST)
Background: Using the COM-B model as a framework, an EU-wide survey aimed to ascertain multidisciplinary healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotics, antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. The UK findings are presented. Methods: A 43-item questionnaire was developed through a two-round modified Delphi consensus process. The UK target quota was 1,315 respondents. Results: 2,404 participants responded. The highest proportion were nursing and midwifery professionals (42%), pharmacists (23%) and medical doctors (18%). HCWs correctly answered that antibiotics are not effective against viruses (97%), they have associated side effects (97%), unnecessary use makes antibiotics ineffective (97%) and healthy people can carry antibiotic resistant bacteria (90%). However, fewer than 80% correctly answered that using antibiotics increases a patient’s risk of antimicrobial resistant infection or that resistant bacteria can spread from person to person. Whilst the majority of HCWs (81%) agreed there is a connection between their antibiotic prescribing behaviour and the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, only 64% felt that they have a key role in controlling antibiotic resistance. The top three barriers to providing advice or resources were lack of resources (19%), insufficient time (11%) and the patient being uninterested in the information (7%). Approximately 35% of UK respondents who were prescribers prescribed an antibiotic at least once in the last week due to fear of patient deterioration or complications. Conclusion: These findings highlight that a multifaceted approach to tackling the barriers to prudent antibiotic use in the UK is required and provides evidence for guiding targeted policy, intervention development and future research. Education and training should focus on patient communication, information on spreading resistant bacteria and increased risk for individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Antibiotic stewardship; antibiotic prescribing; COVID-19; primary care; electronic health records; Antmicrobial Stewardship; AMS; General Practice
Online: 2 March 2023 (04:25:37 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic-related pressures on primary care may have driven inappropriate continuation of antibiotic prescriptions. Yet prescribing modality (repeat/non-repeat) has not previously been investigated in a pandemic context. Using the OpenSAFELY-TPP analytics platform, we analysed repeat/non-repeat prescribing frequency in monthly patient cohorts between Jan 2020–2022. In-depth analysis was conducted on Jan 2020 (“pre-pandemic”) and Jan 2021 (“pandemic”) cohorts. Per-patient prescribing and clinical conditions were determined by searching primary care record data using clinical code lists. Repeat prescribing was defined as >=3 prescriptions in a 6 month lookback period. Associations between demographics (e.g. age, sex, geography) and repeat/non-repeat prescribing were explored using unadjusted risk ratios. Antibiotic prescribing declined from May 2020; non-repeat prescribing declined more strongly than repeat prescribing (maximum declines -26% vs -11%, respectively). In the pandemic cohort, older patients were at higher risk of prescribing (especially repeat prescribing). The most common clinical conditions for repeat prescribing were COPD comorbidity and urinary tract infection. Comorbidities were more common among repeat vs non-repeat prescribed patients. In the pandemic cohort, vs pre-pandemic, repeat and non-repeat prescribing for comorbidities generally declined less compared with shorter-term conditions (infections, including COPD exacerbation/lower respiratory tract infection). Our findings inform ongoing development of stewardship interventions in England..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance; CwPAMS; National Action Plans; Pharmacy; One Health
Online: 18 July 2022 (09:03:53 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health problem threatening safe, effective healthcare delivery in all countries and settings. The ability of microorganisms to become resistant to the effects of antimicrobials is an inevitable evolutionary process. The misuse and overuse of antimicrobial agents has increased the importance of a global focus on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). This review provides insight into the current AMS landscape and identifies contemporary actors and initiatives related to AMS projects in eight African countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia), which form a network of countries participating in the Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (CwPAMS) programme. We focus on common themes across the eight countries, including the current status of AMR, infection prevention and control, AMR implementation strategies, AMS, antimicrobial surveillance, antimicrobial use, antimicrobial consumption surveillance, a one health approach, digital health, pre-service and in-service AMR & AMS training, access to and supply of medicines, and the impact of COVID-19. Recommendations suitable for adaptation are presented, including the development of a national AMS strategy and incorporation of AMS in pharmacists’ and other healthcare professionals' curricula for pre-service and in-service training.