REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0707.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: adenosine; cancer; immunotherapy; signalling; CD73
Online: 30 October 2018 (06:45:05 CET)
The immune system plays a major role in the surveillance and control of malignant cells, with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlating with better patient prognosis in multiple tumor types. The development of ‘checkpoint blockade’ and adoptive cellular therapy has revolutionized the landscape of cancer treatment and highlights the potential of utilizing the patient’s own immune system to eradicate cancer. One mechanism of tumor-mediated immunosuppression that has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target is the purinergic signaling axis, whereby the production of the purine nucleoside adenosine in the tumor microenvironment can potently suppress T and NK cell function. The production of extracellular adenosine is mediated by the cell surface ectoenzymes CD73, CD39 and CD38 and therapeutic agents have been developed to target these as well as the downstream adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R) to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. This review will discuss the role of adenosine and adenosine receptor signaling in tumor and immune cells with a focus on their cell-specific function and their potential as targets in cancer immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0444.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil indicators; vegetation indicators; iron mining; ecological restoration
Online: 8 May 2023 (04:45:53 CEST)
Many ecosystems are being severely degraded, leading the United Nations to deem 2021-2030 as the Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. To be successful, this effort requires robust monitoring tools to assess land reclamation practices. Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of recovery efforts in mined areas by developing a Recovery Quality Index (RQI) based on soil and vegetation indicators. Using the heavily mined Iron Quadrangle region of Brazil as an example, we selected four local, undisturbed reference areas as restoration goals: Atlantic Forest (AF); ferruginous rupestrian grassland with dense vegetation (FRGD); ferruginous rupestrian grassland with sparse vegetation (FRGS); and quartzite rupestrian grassland (QRG). We also selected four areas that were directly or indirectly affected by mining, including an environmental compensation area set aside 5 years prior to the study (COMP-5), two sterile piles that had undergone recovery for 15 and 20 years (SP-20 and SP-15), and a cave area with 15 years of recovery (CAVE-15). The four recovery areas were grouped together with each individual reference area (making four combinations of sites), and measurements of 2 vegetation parameters and 34 soil attributes were used in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for each grouping. We determined the RQI for each group by summing weighted PCA scores for responsive indicators. Vegetative parameters had the lowest RQI weights in all four groups. Soil physical indicators tended to be the most important, except in AF, where chemical indicators were most relevant. RQI values were also lowest when AF was used as the reference, showing that the forest was a unique ecosystem, and the CAVE-15 site had lower RQI scores than the other restored sites, indicating the high degree of disturbance that occurred in that low-lying area. The SP-20 site tended to have higher RQI values than the SP-15, and similar values to the less disturbed COMP-5 areas, potentially indicating greater recovery of native soil properties during the longer recovery period. This RQI-based approach has excellent potential for robust assessment of the recovery of areas degraded by mining and can support decision-making during monitoring.