ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0584.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: UAS; multi-spectral imagery; radiometric correction; BRDF; horticulture
Online: 29 September 2018 (05:55:53 CEST)
UAS-based multi-spectral imagery is becoming increasingly popular for the improved monitoring and managing of various horticultural crops. However, for UAS data to be used as an industry standard for assessing tree structure and condition as well as production parameters, it is imperative that the appropriate data collection and pre-processing protocols are established to enable multi-temporal comparison. There are several UAS-based radiometric correction methods commonly used for precision agricultural purposes. However, their relative accuracies have not been assessed for data acquired in complex horticultural environments. This study assessed the variations in estimated surface reflectance values of different radiometric corrections applied to multi-spectral UAS imagery acquired in both avocado and banana orchards. We found that inaccurate calibration panel measurements, inaccurate signal-to-reflectance conversion, and high variation in geometry between illumination, surface, and sensor viewing produced significant radiometric variations in at-surface reflectance estimates. Potential solutions to address these limitations included appropriate panel deployment, site-specific sensor calibration, and appropriate BRDF correction. Future UAS based horticultural crop monitoring can benefit from the proposed solutions to radiometric corrections to ensure they are using comparable image-based maps of multi-temporal biophysical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0467.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Forests; Structure; Biomass; BRDF; MODIS; Multi-angular; NDVI (Fore-Back); Vegetation structure index
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:40:14 CET)
Utilization of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters obtained from the multi-angular remote sensing is one of the approaches for the retrieval of vegetation structural information. In this research, the potential of multi-angular vegetation indices, formulated by the combination of multi-spectral reflectance from different view angles, for the retrieval of forest above ground biomass was assessed. This research was implemented in the New England region with the availability of a high quality forest inventory database. The multi-angular vegetation indices were generated by the simulation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Product (MCD43A1 Version 6) based BRDF parameters. The effects of seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) composites of the multi-angular vegetation indices on above ground biomass, angular relationship of the spectral reflectance with above ground biomass, and the interrelationships between the multi-angular vegetation indices were analyzed. Among the existing multi-angular vegetation indices, only the Nadir BRDF-adjusted NDVI ( and Hot-spot incorporated NDVI ( showed significant relationship (more than 50%) with the above ground biomass. This research proposed two more sensitive vegetation structural indices, Fore-scattering Back-scattering NDVI and Vegetation Structure Index (VSI). The Fore-scattering Back-scattering NDVI showed higher sensitivity (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 52.46) towards the above ground biomass than existing multi-angular vegetation indices. Furthermore, the VSI performed in the most efficient way explaining 64% variation of the above ground biomass, suggesting that the right choice of the spectral channel and observation geometry should be considered for improving the estimates of the above ground biomass. In addition, the right choice of seasonal data (summer) was found to be important for estimating the forest biomass while other seasonal data were either insensitive or pointless. The promising results shown by the VSI suggest that it could be an appropriate candidate for monitoring vegetation structure from the multi-angular satellite remote sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0089.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Light-emitting diodes; Light extraction efficiency; Textured structures; Light scattering; BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF
Online: 15 March 2017 (00:12:16 CET)
A multiscale model that enables quantitative understanding and prediction of the size effect on scattering properties of micro- and nanostructures is crucial for the design of LED surface textures optimized for high light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this paper, a hybrid process for combining full-wave finite-difference time-domain simulation and a ray-tracing technique based on a bidirectional scattering distribution function model is proposed. We apply this method to study the influence of different pattern sizes of a patterned sapphire substrate on GaN-based LED light extraction from the microscale to the nanoscale. The results show that near-wavelength–scaled patterns with strong diffraction are not expected to enhance LEE. By contrast, microscaled patterns with optical diffusion behavior have the highest LEE at a specific aspect ratio, and subwavelength-scaled patterns that have antireflection properties show marked enhancement of LEE for a wide range of aspect ratios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0432.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: NDVI; climatic factors; mountain grassland; time-lag effects; trends; Landsat; MODIS; BRDF; topographic and atmospheric corrections; Armenia
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:07:23 CEST)
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of links between satellite-measured vegetation vigor and climate variables in Armenian mountain grassland ecosystems in years 1984–2018. NDVI is derived from MODIS and Landsat data, temperature and precipitation data are from meteorological stations. Two study sites were selected, representing arid and semi-arid grassland vegetation types, respectively. Various trend estimators including Mann-Kendall (MK) and derivatives were combined for vegetation change analysis at different time scales. Results suggest that temperature and precipitation had negative and positive impacts on vegetation growth, respectively, in both areas. NDVI-to-precipitation correlation was significant but with an apparent time-lag effect that was further investigated. No significant general changes were observed in vegetation along the observed period. Further comparisons between results from corrected and uncorrected data led us to conclude that MODIS and Landsat data with BRDF, topographic and atmospheric corrections applied are best suited for analyzing relationships between NDVI and climatic factors for the 2000-2018 period in grassland at a very local scale, but in the absence of correction tools and information, uncorrected data can still provide meaningful results. Future refinements will include removal of anthropogenic impact, and deeper investigation of time-lag effects of climatic factors on vegetation dynamics.