REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0161.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Central Nervous System, GM2 Gangliosidoses, Sphingolipids, Sphingolipidosis.
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:00:21 CEST)
Sphingolipids are lipids derived from an 18-carbons unsaturated amino alcohol, the sphingosine. Ceramide, sphingomyelins, sphingosine-1-phosphates, gangliosides and globosides, are part of this group of lipids that participate in important cellular roles such as structural part of plasmatic and organelle membranes maintaining their function and integrity, cell signaling response, cell growth, cell cycle, cell death, inflammation, cell migration and differentiation, autophagy, angiogenesis, immune system. The metabolism of these lipids involves a broad and complex network of reactions that convert one lipid into others through different specialized enzymes. Impairment of sphingolipids metabolism has been associated with several disorders, from several lysosomal storage diseases, known as sphingolipidoses, to polygenic diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. Sphingolipids are mainly located in central nervous system, and their abundance and distribution depend on brain development state and cell type. Although several studies have expanded the knowledge about sphingolipids function both in health and disease, it is still necessary to continue their study to understand the cellular implications of novel sphingolipids. These studies will also contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in which these molecules are part of their pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the main sphingolipid characteristics and current knowledge about the synthesis, catabolism, regulatory pathways, participation in action potential and ionic channels, among other relevant functions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0137.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Lysosomal Storage Disorders; GM2 gangliosidoses; Tay-Sachs disease; Sandhoff disease; β-Hexosaminidases; Therapeutic alternatives
Online: 5 August 2020 (05:05:13 CEST)
GM2 gangliosidoses are a group of pathologies characterized by GM2 ganglioside accumulation into the lysosome due to mutations on the genes encoding for the β-hexosaminidases subunits or the GM2 activator protein. Three GM2 gangliosidoses have been described: Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and the AB variant. Central nervous system dysfunction is the main characteristic of GM2 gangliosidoses patients that include neurodevelopment alterations, neuroinflammation, and neuronal apoptosis. Currently, there is not approved therapy for GM2 gangliosidoses, but different therapeutic strategies have been studied including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, pharmacological chaperones, and gene therapy. The blood-brain barrier represents a challenge for the development of therapeutic agents for these disorders. In this sense, alternative routes of administration (e.g. intrathecal or intracerebroventricular) have been evaluated, as well as the design of fusion peptides that allow the protein transport from the brain capillaries to the central nervous system. In this review, we outline the current knowledge about clinical and physiopathological findings of GM2 gangliosidoses, as well as the ongoing proposals to overcome some limitations of the traditional alternatives by using novel strategies such as molecular Trojan horses or advanced tools of genome editing.