ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: phenotyping; proximal sensing; reflectance imaging; vegetation indices; hyperspectral reflectance; chlorophylls; carotenoids; anthocyanins; senescence; ripening
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:23:13 CET)
Hyperspectral reflectance imaging is an emerging method for rapid non-invasive quantitative screening of plant traits. This method is essential for high-throughput phenotyping and hence for accelerated breeding of crop plants as well as for precision agriculture practices. However, extraction of sensible information from reflectance images is hindered by the complexity of plant optical properties, especially when they are measured in the field. We propose using reflectance indices (Plant Senescence Reflectance Index, PSRI; Anthocyanin Reflectance Index, ARI; and spectral deconvolution) previously developed for remote sensing of vegetation and point-based reflectometers to infer the spatially resolved information on plant development and biochemical composition using ripening apple fruit as the model. Specifically, the proposed approach enables capturing data on distribution of chlorophylls and primary carotenoids as well as secondary carotenoids (both linked with fruit ripening and leaf senescence during plant development) as well as the information on spatial distribution of anthocyanins (known as stress pigments) over the plant surface. We argue that the proposed approach would enrich the phenotype assessments made on the base of reflectance image analysis with valuable information on plant physiological condition, stress acclimation state, and the progression of the plant development.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: reflectance; hyperspectral imaging; pigments; damages; apple fruit
Online: 2 February 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Reflected light carries ample information about biochemical composition, tissue architecture, and physiological condition of plants. Recent technical progress brought about affordable imaging hyperspectrometers (IH) providing spatially resolved spectral data on plants. The extraction of sensible information from hyperspectral reflectance images is difficult due to inherent complexity of plant tissue and canopy optics, especially when recorded by IH under ambient sunlight. We aimed at obtaining a deeper insight into plant optics as perceived by IH since there is a high demand for algorithms for fruit harvesting and grading systems equipped with computer vision and robotic systems capable of working in orchard. We report on the characteristic changes in hyperspectral reflectance accompanying the accumulation of anthocyanins in healthy fruit, pigment breakdown during sunscald and phytopathogen attacks. The measurements made outdoors with a snapshot IH were compared with traditional “point” reflectance measured with a conventional spectrophotometer under controlled illumination conditions. Most of the spectral features and patterns of plant reflectance were evident in the IH-derived reflectance images. As a step forward, a novel index for highlighting tissue damages on the background of the anthocyanin absorption, BRI-M = (1/Rorange – 1/Rred + 1/RNIR), is suggested. Difficulties of the interpretation of fruit hyperspectral reflectance images recorded in situ are discussed with possible implications for plant physiology and precision horticulture practices.