REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0762.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Composites; Recycling; Composite materials; Sustainability; End-of-life; Circularity; Circular Economy; Cars; Society; Technology
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:30:36 CET)
Recently, significant events took place that added immensely to the sociotechnical pressure for developing sustainable composite recycling solutions, namely (1) a ban on composite landfilling in Germany in 2009, (2) the first major wave of composite wind turbines reaching their End-of-Life (EoL) and being decommissioned in 2019-2020, (3) the acceleration of aircraft decommissioning due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and (4) the increase of composites in mass production cars, thanks to the development of high volume technologies based on thermoplastic composites. Such sociotechnical pressure will only grow in the upcoming decade of 2020s as other countries are to follow Germany by limiting and banning landfill options, and by the ever-growing number of expired composites EoL waste. The recycling of composite materials will therefore play an important role in the future, in particular for the wind energy, but also for aerospace, automotive, construction and marine sectors to reduce environmental impacts and to meet the demand. The scope of this manuscript is a clear and condensed yet full state-of-the-art overview of the available composite recycling technologies of both low and high Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). TRL is a framework that has been used in many variations across industries to provide a measurement of technology maturity from idea generation (basic principles) to commercialization. In other words, this work should be treated as a technology review providing guidelines for the sustainable development of the industry that will benefit the society. The authors propose that one of the key aspects for the development of sustainable recycling technology is to identify the optimal recycling methods for different types of composites. Why is that the case can be answered with a simple price comparison of E-glass fibers (~2 $/kg) versus a typical carbon fiber on the market (~20 $/kg) – which of the two is more valuable to recover? However, the answer is more complicated than that – the glass fiber constitutes about 90% of the modern reinforcement market, and it is clear that different technologies are needed. Therefore, this work aims to provide clear guidelines for economically and environmentally sustainable End-of-Life (EoL) solutions and development of the composite material recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0027.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: glass fibers; composites; environmental aging; modeling; kinetics; water; pH; temperature; orientation; durability
Online: 4 July 2022 (03:44:24 CEST)
Glass fibers slowly dissolve and age when exposed to water molecules. Such a phenomenon also occurs when glass fibers are inside fiber-reinforced composites protected by the matrix. This en-vironmental aging results in the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the composite. In structural applications, GFRPs are continuously exposed to water environments for decades (typically design lifetime is around 25 years or even more). During their lifetime, these materials are affected by various temperatures, pH acidity levels, mechanical loads, and the synergy of these factors. The rate of the degradation process depends on the nature of glass, sizing, fiber orientation, and environmental factors such as acidity, temperature, and mechanical stress. In this work, degradation of typical industrial grade R-glass fibers, when inside an epoxy fiber-reinforced composite, is studied experimentally and computationally. A Dissolving Cylinder Zero-Order Kinetic (DCZOK) model was applied and could describe the long-term dissolution of glass composites, considering the influence of fiber orientation (hoop vs transverse), pH (1.7, 4.0, 5.7, 7.0, and 10.0), and temperature (20, 40, 60, and 80 °C). The limitations of the DCZOK model and effects of sizing protection, accumulation of degradation products inside the composite, and water availability were discussed. Experimentally dissolution was measured using ICP-MS. Like for the fibers, for GFRPs also, the temperature showed an Arrhenius-type influence on the ki-netics, increasing the rate of dissolution exponentially with increasing temperature. Similar to fibers, GFRPs showed a hyperbolic dependence on pH. The model was able to capture all of these effects, and the limitations were addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0247.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Chemometrics; Wastewater; Hydrochemical Characterization; North Africa; Environmental Science; Groundwater; Data Analysis; Time Series; Multivariate Analysis; Statistics
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:25:04 CET)
Drinking water quality is a major concern, especially in African countries. This manuscript aims to analyze the chemical composition of Lioua’s groundwater in order to determine the geological processes influencing the chemical elements' composition and origin. Therefore, chemometrics techniques such as multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) and time series methods (TSM) are used. Indeed, MSA includes a component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA), while au-tocorrelation analysis (AA) supplemented by simple spectral density analysis (SDA) is used for TMS. PCA displays three main factors explaining a total variance (TV) of 85.01 %. Factors 1, 2, and 3 are 68.72%, 11.96%, and 8.89 % of TV, respectively. In the CA, three groups were controlled by TDS and EC. G1 reveals a close association between SO42−, K+, Ca2+, and TDS; G2 reveals a close association between Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, and EC; G3 shows the dissociation of bicarbonates HCO3− and NO3− from other chemical elements. AA shows a linear interrelationship of EC, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, and SO42−. However, NO3− and HCO3− indicate uncorrelated characteristics with other parameters. For SDA, the correlograms of Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, and SO42− have a similar trend with EC. None-theless, pH, Ca2+, HCO3− and NO3− exhibit multiple peaks related to the presence of several dis-tinct cyclic mechanisms. The methods enabled the authors to conclude that the geochemical processes influencing the chemical composition are: (i) dissolution of evaporated mineral depos-its, (ii) water-rock interaction, and (iii) evaporation process. In addition, Groundwater exhibits two bipolar characteristics, one recorded with negative and positive charges on pH and Ca+ and another recorded only with negative charges on HCO3− and NO3−. On the other hand, SO42-, K+, Ca2+, and TDS are the major predominant elements in the groundwater’s chemical composition. The major participation of salts and chlorides is in the electrical conductivity of water. The dominance of the lithological factor in the overall mineralization of the Plio-Quaternary surface aquifer waters. The origins of HCO3− and NO3− are different. Indeed, carbonated for HCO3- has a carbonate origin, whereas NO3– has an anthropogenic origin. The salinity was affected by Mg2+, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, and EC. Ca2+, HCO3− and NO3− are resulted from human activity fertilizers, the carbonate facies outcrops, and domestic sewage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0458.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Dam breach parameters; dam failure scenario; flood hazard; flood hydrodynamics; flood simulation; simulated natural hazard
Online: 28 December 2021 (18:13:16 CET)
The risk related to embankment dam breaches needs to be evaluated in order to prepare emergency action plans. The physical and hydrodynamic parameters of the flood wave generated from dam-failure event correspond to various breach parameters such as width, slope and formation time. This study aimed to simulate dam-breach failure scenario of Yabous dam (NE Algeria) and analyze its influence on areas (urban and natural environments) downstream the dam. The simulation was completed using the sensitivity analysis method in order to assess the impact of breach parameters on the dam-break scenario. The propagation of flood wave associated to dam-break was simulated using the one-dimensional HEC-RAS hydraulic model. This study ap-plied a sensitivity analysis of three breach parameters (slope, width, and formation time) in five sites selected downstream the embankment dam. The simulation showed that the maximum flow of the flood wave recorded at the level of the breach was 8768 m3/s, which gradually attenuated along the river course to reach 1579.2m3/s at about 8.5km downstream the dam. This study estab-lished the map of flood-prone areas that illustrated zones threatened with the flooding wave trig-gered by the dam failure due to extreme rainfall events. The sensitivity analysis showed that flood wave flow, height and width revealed positive and similar changes for the increase in adjustments (±25% and ±50%) of breach width and slope in the 5 sites. However, flood wave parameters of breach formation time showed significant trends that changed in the opposite direction compared to breach slope and width.