ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: weighted dissimilarity measure; feature-based indoor positioning; signals of opportunity; location-dependent standard deviation
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:37:55 CEST)
We propose an iterative scheme for feature-based positioning using a new weighted dissimilarity measure with the goal of reducing the impact of large errors among the measured or modeled features. The weights are computed from the location-dependent standard deviations of the features and stored as part of the reference fingerprint map (RFM). Spatial filtering and kernel smoothing of the kinematically collected raw data allow efficiently estimating the standard deviations during RFM generation. In the positioning stage, the weights control the contribution of each feature to the dissimilarity measure, which in turn quantifies the difference between the set of online measured features and the fingerprints stored in the RFM. Features with little variability contribute more to the estimated position than features with high variability. Iterations are necessary because the variability depends on the location, and the location is initially unknown when estimating the position. Using real WiFi signal strength data from extended test measurements with ground truth in an office building, we show that the standard deviations of these features vary considerably within the region of interest and are neither simple functions of the signal strength nor of the distances from the corresponding access points. This is the motivation to include the empirical standard deviations in the RFM. We then analyze the deviations of the estimated positions with and without the location-dependent weighting. In the present example the maximum radial positioning error from ground truth are reduced by 40% comparing to kNN without the weighted dissimilarity measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0535.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chironomus riparius, laboratory cultures, experimental evolution
Online: 30 August 2018 (15:57:20 CEST)
Chironomus riparius is a well-established model organism in various fields such as ecotoxicology and ecology, and therefore environmental preferences, ecological interactions and metabolic traits are well-studied. With the recent publication of a high-quality draft genome, as well as different population genetic parameters such as mutation and recombination rate, the species can be used as an alternative to the Drosophila models in experimental population genomics or molecular ecology. To facilitate access to this promising experimental model species for a wider range of researchers, we describe experimental methods to first create and sustain long term cultures of C. riparius and then use them to perform repeatable and comparable experiments for various research questions.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: 3D data model; underground utility networks; underground space planning; underground mapping; utility cadastre; land administration
Online: 14 August 2019 (07:43:43 CEST)
With the pressure of the increasing density of urban areas, some public infrastructures are moving to the underground to free up space above, such as utility lines, rail lines and roads. In the big data era, the three dimensional (3D) data can be beneficial to understand the complex urban area. Comparing to spatial data and information of the above ground, we lack of the precise and detailed information about underground infrastructures, such as the spatial information of underground infrastructure, the ownership of underground objects and the interdependence of infrastructures in the above and below ground. How to map reliable 3D underground utility networks and use it in the land administration? First, to explain the importance of this work and find a possible solution, this paper observes the current issues of the existing underground utility database in Singapore. A framework for utility data governance is proposed to manage the work process from the underground utility data capture to data usage. This is the backbone to support the coordination of different roles in the utility data governance and usage. Then, an initial design of the 3D underground utility data model is introduced to describe the 3D geometric and spatial information about underground utility data and connect it to the cadastral parcel for land administration. In the case study, the newly collected data from mobile Ground Penetrating Radar is integrated with the existing utility data for 3D modelling. It is expected to explore the integration of new collected 3D data, the existing 2D data and cadastral information for land administration of underground utilities.