ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0017.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: tobacco; alcohol; physical aggression; verbal aggression; impulsivity
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:27:20 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify different adolescent profiles identified by their use tobacco/alcohol and violent behavior repertoires as well as to analyze the extent to which they show impulsivity traits. Participants were selected by cluster random sampling. There was a total of 822 high school students in the sample aged 13 to 18 years with a mean of 14.84 (SD=.87). A cluster analysis with the following variables was done to form the groups: Use of tobacco, Use of alcohol, Physical aggression, Verbal aggression, Anger and Hostility. Three groups of adolescents resulted from these five variables. The multivariate comparison demonstrated the existence of significant between-group differences, and individual analysis for each of the dependent variables (impulsivity dimensions) showed that the relationship was statistically significant in all cases. In conclusion, analysis of factors possibly associated with adolescent’s risk behavior makes possible and orients intervention in different stages of development for sustainable consumption in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: self-esteem; quality of sleep; eating; nursing
Online: 18 December 2018 (12:12:23 CET)
In recent decades, organizational research has given special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and wellbeing of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource which influences wellbeing at work and psychological wellbeing of nurses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of eating in the effect of sleep quality on self-esteem in nursing professionals. The sample of 1073 nurses were administered the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The results show that poor sleep quality and type of eating directly and indirectly affect self-esteem. More so, poor sleep quality deteriorated self-esteem through emotional eating, and even though emotional eating facilitated disinhibited eating, this relationship had no significant effects on self-esteem. The findings of this study suggest that hospital management should implement employee health awareness programs on the importance of healthy sleep and design educational interventions for improving the quality of their diet.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: substance use; emotional intelligence; resilience; family functioning; adolescents
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:48:50 CEST)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is related to several variables which act as risk or protective factors, depending on the circumstances. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, resilience and family functioning in adolescent use of alcohol and tobacco and to find emotional profiles for their use considering self-concept. The sample was made up of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 who filled out the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the APGAR Scale, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescents and the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence and resilience, specifically, stress management and family cohesion were significant in the group of nonusers. Family functioning acts as a predictor factor for onset of use of tobacco and alcohol. Positive expectancies about drinking alcohol were found to be a risk factor and the intrapersonal factor to be protective. Both stress management and family cohesion were protective factors against smoking. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed emotional profiles for users of both substances based on self-concept. Finally, the importance of the direction of the relationship between the variables studied for intervention in this problem should be mentioned. Responsible use by improving adolescent decision-making is one of the results expected from this type of intervention.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Validation; communication; questionnaire; healthcare attention; patient satisfaction; nursing.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:40:45 CET)
Background: Healthcare attention is sometimes considered purely technical, but communication has proven to be closely related to clinical results and patient satisfaction. Therefore, evaluation of communication in the scope of healthcare is a priority. The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt, if necessary, the Spanish version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) in a sample of nursing professionals. (2) Methods: The sample was made up of 2313 nursing professionals selected at random from various medical centers in Spain, and is therefore a sample actively employed at the time data were acquired. We started out from the Communication Style Inventory, a questionnaire for evaluating the predominance of certain individual communication behaviors on six scales (expressiveness, preciseness, verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality and impression manipulativeness). (3) Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the model proposed showed god fit indices. The reliability of the model shown by the Cronbach’s alpha of α=.81 was adequate, and so was single-level and aggregate consistency. Finally, in the analysis of variance by type of contract, configural, metric and scalar invariance was acceptable, but not strict invariance. (4) Conclusions: This instrument progresses in measuring non-technical attributes, such as communication styles, in nursing personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: stress perceived; self-efficacy; engagement; work; nursing
Online: 3 December 2018 (04:10:41 CET)
Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) examines the mechanisms that promote workers’ health and wellbeing, in addition to risk factors arising from work activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the mediating role of perceived stress in the effect that self-efficacy has on engagement in nurses. The sample comprised 1777 currently working nurses. We administered the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Following bivariate correlational analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, and simple and multiple mediation analysis the results showed Self-efficacy to be a powerful personal resource that positively predicts employees’ engagement, although the effect diminishes when there are mediating variables of stress. We found differences in the way the different aspects of stress mediated the relationship between Self-efficacy and the engagement dimensions. “Energy–joy” was the strongest mediating variable for all of the engagement dimensions, and this, together with “harassment–social acceptance” dampened the effect of Self-efficacy on vigor and dedication, whereas “Overload” was only a mediator for dedication. Because nurses work in a stressful environment, risk factor arising from work activity, hospital management should design interventions to enhance their workers’ personal resources and improve personal and organizational wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0519.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: personality; emotional aspects; communication; work activity
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:06:12 CET)
One of the trends in current research in psychology explores how personal variables can determine a person’s communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of Mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activity in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. The final sample was 596 nurses with a range of 22 to 56 years. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, the 10-item Big Five Inventory, the Communication Styles Inventory, and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. This study showed that for nursing professionals, the “Agreeableness”, “Conscientiousness” and “Neuroticism” traits have a close relationship with aggressive verbal communication. Even though Mood moderates this relationship, it is only significant for those individuals with high scores in “Neuroticism”. Because personality dimensions are considered relatively stable over time and consistent from one situation to another, organizations should hold workshops and other types of practical activities to train workers in communication skills and Emotional Intelligence in order to promote employee health and that of their patients and avoid risk factor from work activity in nursing.