REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0246.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: epigenetics, rehabilitation, DNA methylation, histone modification, HDAC, exercise, health span, heart failure, neurodegeneration, cancer, lung fibrosis, bone formation.
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:58:21 CEST)
A large body of evidence reports about the positive effects of physical activity in pathophysiological conditions associated with aging. Physical exercise, alone or in combination with other medical therapies, unquestionably causes reduction of symptoms in chronic non-transmissible diseases often leading to significant amelioration or complete healing. The molecular basis of this exciting outcome, however, remain largely obscure. Epigenetics, exploring at the interface between environmental signals and the remodelling of chromatin structure, promises to shed light on this intriguing matter possibly contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we shall focalize on the role of sirtuins (Sirts) a class III histone deacetylases (HDACs) which function has been frequently associated, often with a controversial role, to the pathogenesis of aging-associated pathophysiological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular, muscular, neurodegenerative, bones and respiratory diseases. Numerous studies, in fact, demonstrate that Sirt-dependent pathways are activated upon physical and cognitive exercises linking mitochondrial function, DNA structure remodelling and gene expression regulation to designed medical therapies leading to tangible beneficial outcomes. However, in similar conditions, other studies assign to sirtuins a negative pathophysiological role. In spite of this controversial effect, it is doubtless that studying sirtuins in chronic diseases might lead to an unprecedented improvement of life quality in the elderly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0190.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: epigenetics; nucleic acids; RNA; DNA; cardiovascular disease; chronic disease; aging, metabolism
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:59:04 CET)
RNA epigenetics is perhaps the most recent aspect of interest for translational epigeneticists. RNA modifications create such an extensive network of epigenetically driven combination whose role in physiology and pathophysiology is still far from being elucidated. Not surprisingly, some of the players determining changes into RNA structure are in common with those involved in DNA and chromatin structure regulation, while other molecules seem very specific to RNA. It is envisaged, then, that new small molecules, acting selectively on RNA epigenetic changes, will be reported soon, opening new therapeutic interventions based on the correction of the RNA epigenetic landscape. In this review, we shall summarize some aspects of RNA epigenetics limited to those in which the potential clinical translatability to cardiovascular disease is emerging.