REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Citrus fruits; Citrus sinensis; hesperidin; COVID-19; vitamin C; SARS-CoV-2; sweet orange
Online: 28 June 2020 (08:45:24 CEST)
Among the many approaches to COVID-19 prevention, the possible role of diet has so far been somewhat marginal. Nutrition is very rich in substances with a potential beneficial effect on health and some of these could have an antiviral action or in any case be important in modulating the immune system and in defending cells from the oxidative stress associated with infection. This short review draws the attention on some components of Citrus fruits and especially of the orange (Citrus sinensis), well known for its vitamin content, but less for the function of its flavonoids. Among the latter, hesperidin has recently attracted the attention of researchers, because it binds to the key proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Several computational methods, independently applied by different researchers, showed that hesperidin has a low binding energy both with the coronavirus "spike" protein, and with the main protease that transforms the early proteins of the virus (pp1a and ppa1b) into the complex responsible for viral replication. The affinity of hesperidin for these proteins is comparable if not superior to that of common chemical antivirals. The preventive efficacy of vitamin C, at dosage attainable by diet, against viral infections is controversial, but recent reviews suggest that this substance may be useful in case of increased stress on the immune system. Finally, the reasons that suggest undertaking appropriate research on the Citrus fruits addition in the diet, as a complementary prevention and treatment of COVID-19, are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccinations; all-cause mortality; relative risk
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:03:36 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemics has had an unprecedented global impact, and the COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been commonly regarded as crucial to overcome the pandemics. Since all-cause mortality is the best way to measure the consequences of a health intervention, the present study was devised to analyze the all-cause mortality data of the United Kingdom (UK), which are made publicly available broken down by vaccination status. Data from January to May 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed according to age groups and vaccination status and the relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality was calculated in comparison to the corresponding unvaccinated groups. All-cause mortality RR was also calculated from January to May 2021 for vaccinated people. Results show that the all-cause mortality RR was higher in people who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines throughout the whole period and in any of the age groups considered. People vaccinated with three doses more than 21 days earlier had RRs lower than unvaccinated people, which however linearly increased over time. RR in vaccinated people of all ages in comparison to unvaccinated people were lower in January-May 2021, however they steadily grew over time. The finding that all-cause mortality RR in vaccinated in comparison to unvaccinated people increases over time requires careful examination to understand the underlying factors. Meanwhile, all the other major countries should undertake a systematic collection of all-causes mortality broken down by vaccination status, and mass vaccination campaigns should be suspended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0140.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: COVID-19; genetic vaccines; adverse reactions; autoimmunity; immunohistochemistry; spike protein
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:57:33 CET)
As a result of the spread of SARS-CoV-2, a global pandemic was declared. Indiscriminate COVID-19 vaccination has been extended to include age groups and naturally immune people with minimal danger of suffering serious complications due to COVID-19. Solid immuno-histopathological evidence demonstrates that the COVID-19 genetic vaccines can display an off-target distribution in tissues that are terminally differentiated, triggering autoimmune reactions. These include the heart and brain, which may incur in situ production of spike protein eliciting a strong autoimmunological inflammatory response. Due to the fact that every human cell which synthesizes non-self antigens becomes inevitably the target of the immune system, and since the human body is not a strictly compartmentalized system, accurate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are needed in order to determine precisely which tissues can be harmed. Therefore, our article aims to draw the attention of the scientific and regulatory communities on the critical need of bio-distribution studies for the genetic vaccines against COVID-19, as well as of rational harm-benefit assessments by age group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Sars-CoV-2; Natural immunity; Cellular immunity; Vaccine-induced immunity; Hybrid immunity; Cross-reactivity; Omicron
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:38:36 CEST)
Background: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. Aims: This narrative review analyzes the literature about: a) the duration of natural immunity; b) cellular immunity; c) cross-reactivity; d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; f) comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the possible reinfections; g) the role of hybrid immunity; h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; i) comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. Material and Methods: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. Results: nearly 900 studies were collected and 238 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of individuals after COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. Conclusions: this narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: a) measure the durability of immunity over time; b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron-5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and of hybrid immunity.