Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drugs and Therapeutics

Version 1 : Received: 30 July 2022 / Approved: 1 August 2022 / Online: 1 August 2022 (10:44:13 CEST)

How to cite: Chandel, A.K.S.; Bhalani, D.; Bhingaradiya, N.; Kumar, A. Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drugs and Therapeutics. Preprints 2022, 2022080021 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0021.v1). Chandel, A.K.S.; Bhalani, D.; Bhingaradiya, N.; Kumar, A. Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drugs and Therapeutics. Preprints 2022, 2022080021 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0021.v1).

Abstract

The low water solubility of any pharmacoactive molecules limits their pharmacological potential but the solubility parameter cannot compromise, so different approaches are employed to enhance their bioavailability. Pharmaceutically active molecules with low solubility convey a higher risk of failure for drug innovation and development. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and several other parameters, such as drug distribution, protein binding and absorption, are majorly affected by their solubility. Among all pharmaceutical dosage forms, the oral dosage forms cover more than 50 %, and the drug molecule should be water-soluble. For good therapeutic activity by the drug molecule on the target site, solubility and bioavailability are crucial factors. The pharmaceutical industry screening programs identified that around 40% of new chemical entities (N.C.E.s) face various difficulties at the formulation and development step. These pharmaceuticals are attributed to their less solubility and bioavailability. The bioavailability and drug solubility enhancement are significant challenges in the area of pharmaceutical formulations. According to the Classification of Biopharmaceutics, Class II and IV drugs (APIs) exhibits poor solubility, lower bioavailability, and less dissolution. Various technologies are discussed in this article to improve the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug, for example, complexation of active molecules, utilization of emulsion formation, micelles, microemulsions, cosolvents, polymeric micelles preparation, particle size reduction technologies, pharmaceutical salts, prodrugs, solid-state alternation technique, soft gel technology, drug nanocrystals, solid dispersion methods, crystal engineering techniques and nanomorph technology. This review mainly describes several other advanced methodologies for solubility and bioavailability enhancement, such as crystal engineering, micronization, solid dispersions, nano sizing, use of cyclodextrins, solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug delivery systems and drug conjugates, by some appropriate research reports.

Keywords

Solubility; Bioavailability; Dissolution; Poorly Soluble Drugs; Drug Solubility Enhancement Techniques

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacology & Toxicology

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