Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

High Levels of Outpatient Antibiotic Prescription at a District Hospital in Ghana (2021): Results of a Cross Sectional Study

Version 1 : Received: 22 July 2022 / Approved: 26 July 2022 / Online: 26 July 2022 (07:47:52 CEST)

How to cite: Amponsah, O.K.O.; Nagaraja, S.B.; Ayisi-Boateng, N.K.; Nair, D.; Muradyan, K.; Asense, P.S.; Wusu-Ansah, O.K.; Terry, R.F.; Khogali, M.; Buabeng, K.O. High Levels of Outpatient Antibiotic Prescription at a District Hospital in Ghana (2021): Results of a Cross Sectional Study. Preprints 2022, 2022070391 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0391.v1). Amponsah, O.K.O.; Nagaraja, S.B.; Ayisi-Boateng, N.K.; Nair, D.; Muradyan, K.; Asense, P.S.; Wusu-Ansah, O.K.; Terry, R.F.; Khogali, M.; Buabeng, K.O. High Levels of Outpatient Antibiotic Prescription at a District Hospital in Ghana (2021): Results of a Cross Sectional Study. Preprints 2022, 2022070391 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0391.v1).

Abstract

Background: Monitoring of antibiotic prescription practices in hospitals is essential to assess and facilitate appropriate use. This is relevant to halt the progression of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Assessment of antibiotic prescribing patterns and completeness of antibiotic prescriptions among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 49,660 patients who had 110,280 encounters in the year. Results: The patient encounters yielded 350,149 prescriptions. Every month, 33-36% of patient encounters resulted in antibiotic prescription, higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended optimum of 27%. Almost half of the antibiotics prescribed belonged to WHO’s Watch group. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50%), azithromycin (29%), ciprofloxacin (28%), metronidazole (21%), and cefuroxime (20%) were the most prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic prescribing parameters (indication, name of drug, duration, dose, route and frequency) were documented in almost all prescriptions. Conclusions: Extending antimicrobial stewardship to the out-patient settings by developing standard treatment guidelines, an out-patient specific drug formulary and antibiograms can promote rational antibiotic use at the hospital. The EMR system of the hospital is a valuable tool for monitoring prescriptions that can be leveraged for future audits.

Keywords

Antibiotic prescription; Outpatients; AWaRe classification; Ghana; SORT IT; Antimicrobial stewardship; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Antimicrobial resistance

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, General Medical Research

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