Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Biodiesel Synthesis from Milk Thistle Extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. using ZnO Nanoparticles as A Catalyst

Version 1 : Received: 17 July 2022 / Approved: 19 July 2022 / Online: 19 July 2022 (05:53:12 CEST)

How to cite: Jan, H.A.; Šurina, I.; Al-Fatesh, A.; Almutlaq, A.M.; Wali, S. Biodiesel Synthesis from Milk Thistle Extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. using ZnO Nanoparticles as A Catalyst. Preprints 2022, 2022070278 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0278.v1). Jan, H.A.; Šurina, I.; Al-Fatesh, A.; Almutlaq, A.M.; Wali, S. Biodiesel Synthesis from Milk Thistle Extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. using ZnO Nanoparticles as A Catalyst. Preprints 2022, 2022070278 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0278.v1).

Abstract

Biodiesel is considered valuable to reduce dependency on petro-fuels. This work aimed to synthesize biodiesel from Silybum marianum using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles as a catalyst. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction for confirmation. The synthesized biodiesel was confirmed by ASTM D-6751, H and C-NMR, GC-MS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The optimal biodiesel yield of 91% was obtained in the oil-to-methanol ratio of 1:24, 15 mg of catalyst concentration, 60 0C temperature, and 45 minutes of reaction time. Fuel properties were determined according to the ASTM defined methods and found within the defined limits of ASTM D-6751. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR showed characteristic peaks at 3.667 ppm, 2.000 to 2.060 ppm, 0.858-0.918 ppm, 5.288-5.407 ppm, 24.93-34.22 ppm, 172.71, 173.12, 130.16 ppm, and 128.14 ppm, respectively, which confirm biodiesel synthesis. The FAMEs composition of biodiesel was determined by GC-MS which recognized 19 peaks for different types of FAMEs. FT-IR spectroscopy showed two main peaks, first in the range of 1725-1750 cm-1 and second in the range of 1000-1300 cm-1, which confirmed that the transesterification process was completed successfully. The physicochemical characteristics of Silybum marianum confirm that it is a suitable source to produce biodiesel on industrial scale.

Keywords

biodiesel synthesis; nanoparticle synthesis; green catalyst synthesis; physicochemical analysis; Silybum marianum; nonedible feedstock

Subject

MATERIALS SCIENCE, General Materials Science

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