Preprint Article Version 4 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Beginning to the End of the Universe and Eternal Space-time

Version 1 : Received: 5 July 2022 / Approved: 7 July 2022 / Online: 7 July 2022 (09:23:27 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 14 July 2022 / Approved: 15 July 2022 / Online: 15 July 2022 (12:09:47 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 17 July 2022 / Approved: 18 July 2022 / Online: 18 July 2022 (10:23:23 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 17 August 2022 / Approved: 19 August 2022 / Online: 19 August 2022 (04:35:00 CEST)

How to cite: Ladhani, A. The Beginning to the End of the Universe and Eternal Space-time. Preprints 2022, 2022070121 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0121.v4). Ladhani, A. The Beginning to the End of the Universe and Eternal Space-time. Preprints 2022, 2022070121 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0121.v4).

Abstract

We present a cosmological model in which the Big Bang was not the beginning of space and time; there was a previous phase leading up to it, with multiple cycles of contraction and expansion that repeat indefinitely. In this paper we propose a unique property of Space-time, this particular and marvelous nature of space shows us that space can stretch, expand, and shrink. When matter comes closer to each other, the space also shrinking between them. As space shrunk it produced the pressure, which pressure stretching the Shrunk space. This property of space is causes the size of the Universe changed over time: growing or shrinking. The observed accelerated expansion, which relates the stretching of Shrunk space for the new theory, is derived. When space exponentially shrunk, it creates the pressure, which leads to stretching the shrink volume of space. As pressure of shrink space decreases, the stretching of shrunk space increases, that is although in general, decelerate in the pressure of shrink space leads to accelerate the expansion of space. The pressure of the shrunk space will cease at the certain cosmic scale, so the expansion of the Universe will eventually stop, after that a period of slow contraction will begin, thus bringing the universe back to contract to its initial state, ending in a Big Crunch. The universe will not continue to expand forever, no need however, for dark energy. The new definition of eternal space and its unique properties enables us to describe a sequence of events from the Big Bang to the Big Crunch.

Keywords

eternal Space-time; Big Bang and Big Crunch; cosmology; gravitational force; dark energy

Subject

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Astronomy & Astrophysics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 19 August 2022
Commenter: Amrit Ladhani
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: I explained the brief history of the universe from the beginning to the end of the Universe. The universe will not continue to expand forever, no need however, for dark energy. This model is best understood by pictures rather than a large number of equations.The theory of eternal Space-time and it consists of unique properties, which enables us to describe a sequence of events from the Big Bang to the Big Crunch. It appears that we now have two disparate possibilities: It could be that our universe is cyclic and no beginning; there may have been Big Bangs before ours, and a universe with a definite beginning. The ultimate arbiter will be Nature.
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