Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Increasing the Lateral Resolution of 3D-GPR Datasets Through 2D-FFT Interpolation. Application to the Case Study of Roman Villa of Horta Da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal)

Version 1 : Received: 8 June 2022 / Approved: 9 June 2022 / Online: 9 June 2022 (04:30:02 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Oliveira, R.J.; Caldeira, B.; Teixidó, T.; Borges, J.F.; Carneiro, A. Increasing the Lateral Resolution of 3D-GPR Datasets through 2D-FFT Interpolation with Application to a Case Study of the Roman Villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal). Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 4069. Oliveira, R.J.; Caldeira, B.; Teixidó, T.; Borges, J.F.; Carneiro, A. Increasing the Lateral Resolution of 3D-GPR Datasets through 2D-FFT Interpolation with Application to a Case Study of the Roman Villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal). Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 4069.

Journal reference: Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 4069
DOI: 10.3390/rs14164069

Abstract

INT-FFT algorithm presented in this work uses an interpolation methodology to densify 3D-GPR datasets to sharpen images obtained in GPR surveys obtained in an archaeological context. It allows the reconstruction of missing data from the combined use of mathematical transforms (e.g., the Fourier and Curvelet transform) and predictive filters. This technique makes it possible to calculate the missing signal simply by meeting two requirements: the data in the frequency domain must be limited in a range of values and must be able to be represented by a distribution of Fourier coefficients (verified conditions). The INT-FFT algorithm uses an open-access routine (Suinterp, Seismic Unix) to interpolate the GPR profiles based on seismic trace interpolation. This process uses automatic event identification routines by calculating spatial derivatives to identify discontinuities in space by detecting very subtle changes in the signal, thus allowing for more efficient interpolation without artifacts or signal deterioration. We successfully tested the approach using GPR datasets from the Roman Villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal). The results show an increase in the geometric sharpness of the GPR reflectors and have not produced any numerical artifacts. The tests performed to apply the methodology to GPR-3D data allowed for assessing the interpolation efficiency, the level of recovery of missing data, and the level of information lost when one chooses to increase the distance between profiles in the acquisition stage of the data.

Keywords

applied geophysics; digital signal processing; enhancement of sharpness of 3D-GPR datasets; 2D Fourier interpolation; GPR data densification

Subject

EARTH SCIENCES, Geophysics

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