Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Gal-3BP in Viral Infections: An Emerging Role in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

Version 1 : Received: 9 May 2022 / Approved: 10 May 2022 / Online: 10 May 2022 (03:44:27 CEST)

How to cite: Gallo, V.; Arienzo, A.; Iacobelli, S.; Iacobelli, V.; Antonini, G. Gal-3BP in Viral Infections: An Emerging Role in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 . Preprints 2022, 2022050125 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0125.v1). Gallo, V.; Arienzo, A.; Iacobelli, S.; Iacobelli, V.; Antonini, G. Gal-3BP in Viral Infections: An Emerging Role in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 . Preprints 2022, 2022050125 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0125.v1).

Abstract

Gal-3BP is a multifunctional glycoprotein involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions known to be upregulated in cancer and various viral infections, including HIV-1, HCV and SARS-CoV-2, with a key role in regulating the antiviral immune response. Studies have identified a direct correlation between circulating levels of Gal-3BP and the severity of disease and/or disease progression for some viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a role of Gal-3BP in these processes. Due to Gal-3BP’s complex biology, the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in viral diseases have been only partially clarified. Gal-3BP induces the expression of IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, mainly interacting with galectin-3, targeting TRAF-6 and TRAF-3 complex, thus having a putative role in the modulation of TGF-β signaling. In addition, an antiviral activity of Gal-3BP has been ascribed to a direct interaction of the protein with virus components. In this review, we explored the role of Gal-3BP in viral infections and the relationship between Gal-3BP upregulation and disease severity and progression, mainly focusing on SARS-CoV-2. Augmented knowledge of Gal-3BP role in virus infections can be useful to evaluate its possible use as a prognostic biomarker and as a putative target to block or attenuate severe disease.

Keywords

Gal-3BP; Virus infection; SARS-CoV-2; Biomarkers

Subject

BIOLOGY, Other

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