Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Evolution of Brains and Computers: The Roads not Taken

Version 1 : Received: 7 May 2022 / Approved: 9 May 2022 / Online: 9 May 2022 (14:12:27 CEST)

How to cite: Sole, R.; Seoane, L. Evolution of Brains and Computers: The Roads not Taken. Preprints 2022, 2022050121 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0121.v1). Sole, R.; Seoane, L. Evolution of Brains and Computers: The Roads not Taken. Preprints 2022, 2022050121 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0121.v1).

Abstract

When computers start to become a dominant part of technology around the 1950s, fundamental questions about reliable designs and robustness were of great relevance. Their development gave rise to the exploration of new questions such as what made brains reliable (since neurons can die) and how computers could get inspiration from neural systems. In parallel, the first Artificial Neural Networks came to life. Since then, the comparative view between brains and computers has been developed in new, sometimes unsuspected directions. With the rise of deep learning and the development of connectomics, an evolutionary look at how both hardware and neural complexity have evolved or designed is required. In this paper, we argue that important similarities have resulted both from convergent evolution (the inevitable outcome of architectural constraints) and inspiration of hardware and software principles guided by toy pictures of neurobiology. Moreover, dissimilarities and gaps originate from the lack of major innovations that have paved the way to biological computing (including brains) that are completely absent within the artificial domain. As it occurs within synthetic biocomputation, we can also ask whether alternative minds can emerge from A.I.\ designs. Here we take an evolutionary view of the problem and discuss the remarkable convergences between living and artificial designs and what are the pre-conditions to achieve artificial intelligence.

Keywords

Evolution; brains; deep learning; embodiment; neural networks; artificial intelligence; neurorobotics

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics

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