Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the study of how variations of the patient genetic makeup could influence the selection and dosing of medications, including urate-lowering therapies (ULTs). Patients with gout present with several comorbidities, warranting the use of several long-term medications that increase their pill burden and the risk of adverse drug events. PGx testing can identify individuals who are more or less likely to benefit from a given treatment and ultimately improve adherence and reduce polypharmacy. Gout management involves using various ULTs associated with specific genetic variations that could modulate medication safety and efficacy. Individuals carrying the HLA-B*58:01 variant are at a higher risk of serious and life-threatening skin reactions from taking allopurinol. Besides, racial disparities in HLA-B distribution warrant testing for its status in high-risk populations, specifically some Asian subgroups and African Americans. G6PD-deficient individuals are prone to develop hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia with pegloticase and probenecid use. Patients with the less active form of the drug-metabolizing CYP2C9 are at higher risk for NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The drug-gene pair interactions among various gout therapies were also reviewed. Allopurinol-related genes included AOX, ABCG2, and SLC22A12. Febuxostat-related genes included UGT1A1. Benzbromarone- and probenecid- related genes included SLC22A12 and ABCB1. Colchicine-related genes included CYP2D6, ABCB1, rs6916345 G>A, and SEPHS1. Finally, the corticosteroid-related gene included HCG22; and the anakinra-related gene included IL1RA. This review synthesizes the most contemporary level of evidence for using PGx in gout pharmacotherapy, as referenced in the CPIC guidelines, FDA, PharmGKB, and current literature.
Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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