Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Emerging Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis in the Blood and the CSF: a Comprehensive Review of the Literature with a Focus on Neurofilaments and Therapeutic Considerations

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2022 / Approved: 26 February 2022 / Online: 26 February 2022 (03:33:31 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Biernacki, T.; Kokas, Z.; Sandi, D.; Füvesi, J.; Fricska-Nagy, Z.; Faragó, P.; Kincses, T.Z.; Klivényi, P.; Bencsik, K.; Vécsei, L. Emerging Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis in the Blood and the CSF: A Focus on Neurofilaments and Therapeutic Considerations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 3383. Biernacki, T.; Kokas, Z.; Sandi, D.; Füvesi, J.; Fricska-Nagy, Z.; Faragó, P.; Kincses, T.Z.; Klivényi, P.; Bencsik, K.; Vécsei, L. Emerging Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis in the Blood and the CSF: A Focus on Neurofilaments and Therapeutic Considerations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 3383.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 3383
DOI: 10.3390/ijms23063383

Abstract

Introduction: multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common immune-mediated chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting young people. Due to the permanent disability, cognitive impairment, and the enormous detrimental impact MS can exert on the patients’ health-related quality of life. It is of great importance to recognise it in time and commence adequate treatment at an early stage. The currently used disease-modifying therapies (DMT) aim to reduce disease activity and thus halt disability development, which in current clinical practice are monitored by clinical and imaging parameters but not by biomarkers found in blood and/or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both clinical and radiological measures routinely used to monitor disease activity lack information on the fundamental pathophysiological features and mechanisms of MS. Furthermore, they lag behind the disease process itself. By the time a clinical relapse becomes evident or a new lesion appears on the MRI scan, potentially irreversible damage has already occurred in the CNS. In recent years several biomarkers that previously have been linked to other neurological and immunological diseases have received increased attention in MS. Additionally, other novel, potential biomarkers with prognostic and diagnostic properties have been detected in the CSF and blood of MS patients. Areas covered: in this review, we summarise the most up to date knowledge and research conducted on the already known and most promising new biomarker candidates found in the CSF and blood of MS patients. Author commentary: the current diagnostic criteria of MS rely on three pillars; MRI imaging, clinical events and the presence of oligoclonal bands in the CSF (which was reinstated into the diagnostic criteria by the most recent revision). Even though the most recent McDonald criteria made the diagnosis of MS faster than the prior iteration, it is still not an infallible diagnostic toolset, especially at the very early stage of clinically isolated syndrome. Together with the gold standard MRI and clinical measures, ancillary blood and CSF biomarkers may not just improve diagnostic accuracy and speed but very well may become agents to monitor therapeutic efficacy and make even more personalised treatment in MS a reality in the near future. The major disadvantage of these biomarkers in the past has been the need to obtain CSF to measure them. However, the recent advances in extremely sensitive immunoassays made their measurement possible from peripheral blood even when present only in minuscule concentrations. This should mark the beginning of a new biomarker research and utilisation era in MS.

Keywords

biomarker; diagnostic; prognostic; blood; cerebrospinal fluid; multiple sclerosis; disability pregression

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Neurology

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