Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Permanently Installed Terrestrial Laser Scanner And Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Evaluation Of Correlation Factor Through Time Series Analysis On Coastal Area Under Varying Environmental Conditions

Version 1 : Received: 26 January 2022 / Approved: 28 January 2022 / Online: 28 January 2022 (11:18:54 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Di Biase, V.; Kuschnerus, M.; Lindenbergh, R.C. Permanent Laser Scanner and Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Correlation Characterisation at a Sandy Beach. Sensors 2022, 22, 2311. Di Biase, V.; Kuschnerus, M.; Lindenbergh, R.C. Permanent Laser Scanner and Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Correlation Characterisation at a Sandy Beach. Sensors 2022, 22, 2311.

Journal reference: Sensors 2022, 22, 2311
DOI: 10.3390/s22062311

Abstract

In the past years, our knowledge of coastal environments has been enriched by remotely sensed data. However, to successfully extract information from a combination of different sensors systems, it should be understood how these interact with the common coastal environment. In this research we co-analyze two sensor systems: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and satellite based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). TLS shows large potential for examining coastal processes thanks to the possibility to retrieve repeated, accurate and dense topographic information in a rapid and non-invasive manner. However, TLS presents some limits due to its high economic costs and limited field of view. SAR systems are among the most used active remote sensor system for Earth Observation. Despite their relatively low resolution, SAR systems provide the ability to monitor and map coastal areas with complete, repeated and frequent coverage, penetrating through clouds and providing all weather monitoring. Moreover, Sentinel-1 SAR images are freely available. The availability of a permanently installed TLS system (PLS, Permanent Laser Scanner) allows us, to extensively compare Sentinel-1 SAR data and topographic laser scans during different conditions on a sandy beach. PLS data are compared with simultaneous Sentinel-1 SAR images in order to investigate the combined use of PLS and SAR in coastal environments. The purpose of this comparison is the investigation of a possible relation between PLS and SAR data: knowing their relation, SAR dataset could be correlated to beaches characteristics. Meteorological and surface roughness have also been taken into consideration in the evaluation of the correlation between PLS and SAR data. The permanently installed laser scanner for the present study is located in Noordwijk (the Netherlands). A generally positive but low correlation exists between the two variables. When considering weather phenomena, their correlation increases and shows a dependence on wind directions and speed. The correlation with the surface roughness, evaluated in terms of root-mean squared height, also depends on specific wind speed and directions.

Keywords

Terrestrial Laser Scanner; SAR; coastal environment; weather effect; surface roughness.

Subject

EARTH SCIENCES, Environmental Sciences

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