Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

CRISPR Therapeutics for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Version 1 : Received: 17 January 2022 / Approved: 18 January 2022 / Online: 18 January 2022 (17:30:37 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Erkut, E.; Yokota, T. CRISPR Therapeutics for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1832. Erkut, E.; Yokota, T. CRISPR Therapeutics for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1832.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorder with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 3,500-5,000 males. DMD manifests as childhood-onset muscle degeneration, followed by loss of ambulation, cardiomyopathy, and death in early adulthood due to a lack of functional dystrophin protein. Out-of-frame mutations in the dystrophin gene are the most common underlying cause of DMD. Gene editing via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system is a promising therapeutic for DMD, as it can permanently correct DMD mutations and thus restore the reading frame, allowing for the production of functional dystrophin. The specific mechanism of gene editing can vary based on a variety of factors such as the number of cuts generated by CRISPR, the presence of an exogenous DNA template, or the current cell cycle stage. CRISPR-mediated gene editing for DMD has been tested both in vitro and in vivo, with many of these studies discussed herein. Additionally, novel modifications to the CRISPR system such as base or prime editors allow for more precise gene editing. Despite recent advances, limitations remain including delivery efficiency, off-target mutagenesis, and long-term maintenance of dystrophin. Further studies focusing on safety and accuracy of the CRISPR system are necessary prior to clinical translation.


CRISPR; gene editing; Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); exon skipping; NHEJ; dystrophin


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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