Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Neurobiological Insights into Twice Exceptionality: Circuits, Cells, and Molecules

Version 1 : Received: 8 November 2021 / Approved: 12 November 2021 / Online: 12 November 2021 (13:53:17 CET)

How to cite: Kelvington, B.A.; Nickl-Jockschat, T.; Abel, T. Neurobiological Insights into Twice Exceptionality: Circuits, Cells, and Molecules. Preprints 2021, 2021110224 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0224.v1). Kelvington, B.A.; Nickl-Jockschat, T.; Abel, T. Neurobiological Insights into Twice Exceptionality: Circuits, Cells, and Molecules. Preprints 2021, 2021110224 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0224.v1).

Abstract

Twice-exceptional learners face a unique set of challenges arising from the intersection of extraordinary talent and disability. Neurobiology research has the capacity to complement pedagogical research and provide support for twice-exceptional learners. Very few studies have attempted to specifically address the neurobiological underpinnings of twice-exceptionality. However, neurobiologists have built a broad base of knowledge in nervous system function spanning from the level of neural circuits to the molecular basis of behavior. It is known that distinct neural circuits mediate different neural functions, which suggests that 2e learning may result from enhancement in one circuit and disruption in another. Neural circuits are known to adapt and change in response to experience, a cellular process known as neuroplasticity. Plasticity is controlled by a bidirectional connection between the synapse, where neural signals are received, and the nucleus, where regulated gene expression can return to alter synaptic function. Complex molecular mechanisms compose this connection in distinct neural circuits, and genetic alterations in these mechanisms are associated with both memory enhancements and psychiatric disorder. Understanding the consequences of these changes at the molecular, cellular, and circuit levels will provide critical insights into the neurobiological bases of twice-exceptional learning.

Keywords

twice-exceptionality; 2e; memory systems; plasticity; epigenetics

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