Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Survey of Freshly-Harvested Oat Grains from Southern Brazil Reveals High Incidence of Type B Trichothecenes and Associated Fusarium Species

Version 1 : Received: 9 November 2021 / Approved: 11 November 2021 / Online: 11 November 2021 (13:05:00 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Pinheiro, M.; Iwase, C.H.T.; Bertozzi, B.G.; Caramês, E.T.S.; Carnielli-Queiroz, L.; Langaro, N.C.; Furlong, E.B.; Correa, B.; Rocha, L.O. Survey of Freshly Harvested Oat Grains from Southern Brazil Reveals High Incidence of Type B Trichothecenes and Associated Fusarium Species. Toxins 2021, 13, 855. Pinheiro, M.; Iwase, C.H.T.; Bertozzi, B.G.; Caramês, E.T.S.; Carnielli-Queiroz, L.; Langaro, N.C.; Furlong, E.B.; Correa, B.; Rocha, L.O. Survey of Freshly Harvested Oat Grains from Southern Brazil Reveals High Incidence of Type B Trichothecenes and Associated Fusarium Species. Toxins 2021, 13, 855.

Journal reference: Toxins 2021, 13, 855
DOI: 10.3390/toxins13120855

Abstract

Oats are a nutrient rich cereal used for animal feed and growing in human consumption. This cereal can be affected by Fusarium spp., causing the disease Fusarium Head Blight. This disease is caused mainly by species within the Fusarium graminearum species complex, and are also responsible for producing mycotoxins that are harmful to humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate fungal diversity in Brazilian oat samples, focusing on the Fusarium sambucinum species complex and the presence of type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and its derivatives, and nivalenol) from two different regions; Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The isolated fungi from oat grains were identified as species from the genera: Fusarium, Phoma and Alternaria. The majority of Fusarium isolates belonged to the Fusarium sambucinum species complex; identified as F. graminearum s.s., F. meridionale and F. poae. In the RS region, F. poae was the most frequent fungus, while FGSC was the most frequent in the PR region. The majority of F. graminearum s.s. isolates were of the 15-ADON genotype, while some 3-ADON genotypes were identified; however, F. meridionale and F. poae were all of the NIV genotype. Mycotoxin analysis revealed that 92% and 100% of the samples from PR and RS were contaminated with type B trichothecenes, respectively. The oats from PR were predominantly contaminated with DON, whereas NIV was predominant in oats from RS. Analysis showed that 24% of the samples were contaminated with DON at levels higher than Brazilian regulations. Co-contamination of DON, its derivatives and NIV was observed in 84% and 57.7% of the samples from PR and RS, respectively. The results provide new information on Fusarium contamination in Brazilian oats, highlighting the importance for further studies on mycotoxins.

Keywords

oats; fusarium sambucinum species complex; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; mycotoxin

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Microbiology

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