Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Experimental Evaluation of Dry Powder Inhalers During In- and Exhalation Using a Model of the Human Respiratory System (xPULM™)

Version 1 : Received: 1 November 2021 / Approved: 10 November 2021 / Online: 10 November 2021 (08:39:55 CET)

How to cite: Pasteka, R.; Santos da Costa, J.P.; Forjan, M. Experimental Evaluation of Dry Powder Inhalers During In- and Exhalation Using a Model of the Human Respiratory System (xPULM™). Preprints 2021, 2021110195 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0195.v1). Pasteka, R.; Santos da Costa, J.P.; Forjan, M. Experimental Evaluation of Dry Powder Inhalers During In- and Exhalation Using a Model of the Human Respiratory System (xPULM™). Preprints 2021, 2021110195 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0195.v1).

Abstract

Dry powder inhalers are used by a large number of patients worldwide to treat respiratory diseases. The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate changes in aerosol particle diameter and particle number concentration of pharmaceutical aerosols generated by five dry powder inhalers under realistic inhalation and exhalation conditions. The active respiratory system model (xPULM™) was used as a model of the human respiratory system and to simulate a patient undergoing inhalation therapy. A mechanical upper airway model was developed, manufactured and introduced as a part of the xPULM™ to represent the human upper respiratory tract with high fidelity. Integration of optical aerosol spectrometry technique into the setup allowed for evaluation of pharmaceutical aerosols. The results show that the upper airway model increases the resistance of the overall system and act as a filter for bigger particles (>3 µm). Furthermore, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean particle diameter between inhaled and exhaled particles with the majority of the particles depositing in the lung. The minimum deposition is reached for particle size of 0.5 µm. The mean particle number concentrations exhaled are 2.94% (BreezHaler®), 2.66% (Diskus®), 10.24% (Ellipta®) 2.13% (HandiHaler®) and 6.22% (Turbohaler®). In conclusion, the xPULM™ active respiratory system model is a viable option for studying interactions of pharmaceutical aerosols and the respiratory tract in terms of applicable deposition mechanisms. The model can support the reduction of animal experimentation in aerosol research and provide an alternative to experiments with human subjects.

Keywords

airway model; DPI; inhalation; aerosol testing; drug delivery; porcine lung

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Other

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