Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT)

Version 1 : Received: 30 October 2021 / Approved: 1 November 2021 / Online: 1 November 2021 (11:21:41 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Qu, Q.; Xu, R.; Chen, Y.; Blasch, E.; Aved, A. Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT). Future Internet 2021, 13, 291. Qu, Q.; Xu, R.; Chen, Y.; Blasch, E.; Aved, A. Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT). Future Internet 2021, 13, 291.

Journal reference: Future Internet 2021, 13, 291
DOI: 10.3390/fi13110291

Abstract

Blockchain technology has been recognized as a promising solution to enhance the security and privacy of Internet of Things (IoT) and Edge Computing scenarios. Taking advantage of the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus protocol, which solves a computation intensive hashing puzzle, Blockchain assures the security of the system by establishing a digital ledger. However, the computation intensive PoW favors members possessing more computing power. In the IoT paradigm, fairness in the highly heterogeneous network edge environments must consider devices with various constraints on computation power. Inspired by the advanced features of Digital Twins (DT), an emerging concept that mirrors the lifespan and operational characteristics of physical objects, we propose a novel Miner-Twins (MinT) architecture to enable a fair PoW consensus mechanism for blockchains in IoT environments. MinT adopts an edge-fog-cloud hierarchy. All physical miners of the blockchain are deployed as microservices on distributed edge devices, while fog/cloud servers maintain digital twins that periodically update miners’ running status. By timely monitoring miner’s footage that is mirrored by twins, a lightweight Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) based detection achieves to identify individual misbehaved miners that violate fair mining. Moreover, we also design a novel Proof-of-Behavior (PoB) consensus algorithm to detect byzantine miners that collude to compromise a fair mining network. A preliminary study is conducted on a proof-of-concept prototype implementation, and experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed MinT scheme under a distributed byzantine network environment.

Keywords

Digital Twin; Blockchain; Proof-of-Work; Microservices; Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA); Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Information Technology & Data Management

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