Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Genetic Predisposition and Chemotherapeutic Approaches Including Oncolytic Virus for the Treatment of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Version 1 : Received: 14 September 2021 / Approved: 21 September 2021 / Online: 21 September 2021 (14:21:19 CEST)

How to cite: Naseer, F.; Ahmad, T.; Kousar, K.; Kakar, S.; Gul, R. Genetic Predisposition and Chemotherapeutic Approaches Including Oncolytic Virus for the Treatment of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma . Preprints 2021, 2021090366 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0366.v1). Naseer, F.; Ahmad, T.; Kousar, K.; Kakar, S.; Gul, R. Genetic Predisposition and Chemotherapeutic Approaches Including Oncolytic Virus for the Treatment of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma . Preprints 2021, 2021090366 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0366.v1).

Abstract

Among the leading causes of cancer mortality, prostatic adenocarcinoma (PaC) is at second to lung carcinoma, but it is the most commonly happening non-cutaneous malignancy in elderly men in the world. Therapeutic options for PaC depend on age, growth & stage of malignancy, the desired outcomes and shortcomings of available treatment, estimated cost and patient compliance. Patients older than 60 years with a sluggish localized tumor may be placed on active surveillance, otherwise go with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), prostate artery embolization (PAE) and pelvic lymphadenectomy with/without radiation therapy. For metastatic PC androgen-deprivation therapy is an option with or without surgery. These agents decline the body’s testosterone production or block its activity by gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues including leuprolide acetate and goserelin acetate implant. The hormone’s activity can be stopped by androgens antagonist such as flutamide, bicalutamide and nilutamide along with chemotherapeutic agents, such as taxanes (e.g., docetaxel, paclitaxel) but after all the disease relapses in 20-30% of patients. So, new immunological or vaccine-based therapeutic moieties have been investigated to meet the objective of providing selectivity to cancerous cells and desired therapeutic outcomes with less/no harmful effects to normal cells. The chimeric version, oncolytic poliovirus and human rhinovirus i.e. PVSRIPO is most promising feature in cancer therapeutics and activate innate immunity by neutrophils infiltration via PAMP & DAMP pathways while Sipuleucel-T expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) which can stimulate CD4+ helper T-cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and ultimately activate the acquired immunity against cancer cells. In this article, we have discussed the role of genetic predisposition and chemotherapeutic approaches including oncolytic poliovirus for the treatment of PaC in order to better understanding of tumor biology and mechanisms involved in chemotherapeutic drugs based resistance.

Keywords

Docetaxel; Paclitaxel; Oncolytic Poliovirus; PVSRIPO; Sipuleucel

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