Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Faecal Microbial Transplantation in Critically Ill Patients – Structured Review and Perspectives

Version 1 : Received: 12 September 2021 / Approved: 14 September 2021 / Online: 14 September 2021 (09:52:56 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Cibulková, I.; Řehořová, V.; Hajer, J.; Duška, F. Fecal Microbial Transplantation in Critically Ill Patients—Structured Review and Perspectives. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1459. Cibulková, I.; Řehořová, V.; Hajer, J.; Duška, F. Fecal Microbial Transplantation in Critically Ill Patients—Structured Review and Perspectives. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1459.

Journal reference: Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1459
DOI: 10.3390/biom11101459

Abstract

The human gut microbiota consists of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. It is a dynamic ecosystem shaped by several factors, which play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. A disturbance of the gut microbiota, also termed “dysbiosis,” is associated with increased host susceptibility to a range of diseases. Because of splanchnic ischaemia, exposure to antibiotics, and/or underlying the disease critically ill patients loose 90% of the commensal organisms in their gut within hours after the insult. This is followed by a rapid overgrowth of potentially pathogenic and pro-inflammatory bacteria altering metabolic, immune, and even neurocognitive functions and turning the gut into the driver of systemic inflammation and multiorgan failure. Indeed, restoring healthy microbiota by means of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the critically ill is an attractive and plausible concept in intensive care. Yet, available data from controlled studies are limited to probiotics and FMT for severe C. difficile infection or severe inflammatory bowel disease. Case series and observational trials generate hypothesis that FMT might be feasible and safe in immunocompromised patients, refractory sepsis, or severe antibiotic-associated diarrhea in ICU. There is a burning need to test these hypotheses in randomized controlled trials powered for determination of patient-centered outcomes.

Keywords

gut microbiota; critically ill; faecal microbial transplantation; multiorgan

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