Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Epigenetic Clock, Circadian Rhythms and Cell Aging

Version 1 : Received: 9 September 2021 / Approved: 10 September 2021 / Online: 10 September 2021 (15:13:04 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Samoilova, E.M.; Belopasov, V.V.; Ekusheva, E.V.; Zhang, C.; Troitskiy, A.V.; Baklaushev, V.P. Epigenetic Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Aging and Rejuvenation. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 1050. Samoilova, E.M.; Belopasov, V.V.; Ekusheva, E.V.; Zhang, C.; Troitskiy, A.V.; Baklaushev, V.P. Epigenetic Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Aging and Rejuvenation. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 1050.

Journal reference: J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 1050
DOI: 10.3390/jpm11111050

Abstract

This review summarizes current understanding of the interaction between circadian rhythms of gene expression and epigenetic clocks characterized by the specific profile of DNA methylation in CpG-islands which mirror the chronological age of individual cells and the entire organism. Basic mechanisms of regulation for circadian genes CLOCK- BMAL1 as well as downstream clock-controlled genes (ССG) are also discussed here. It has been shown that circadian rhythms operate by finely tuned regulation of transcription and rely on various epigenetic mechanisms including activation of enhancers / suppressors, acetylation / deacetylation of histones and other proteins as well as DNA methylation. Overall, up to 20% of all genes expressed by the cell are subject to expression oscillations associated with circadian rhythms. Also included in the review is a brief list of genes involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, along with genes important for metabolic control, aging, and oncogenesis. Knocking out some of them (for example, Sirt1) accelerates the aging process, while overexpression of Sirt1, on the contrary, protects against age-related changes. Circadian regulators control a number of genes that activate the cell cycle (Wee1, c-Myc, p20, p21, and Cyclin D1) and regulate histone modification and DNA methylation. Approaches for determining the epigenetic age from methylation profiles across CpG islands in individual cells are described. DNA methylation, which characterizes the function of the epigenetic clock, appears to link together such key biological processes as regeneration and functioning of stem cells, aging and malignant transformation. Finally, main features of adult stem cell aging in stem cell niches and current possibilities for modulating the epigenetic clock as part of antiaging therapy are discussed.

Keywords

circadian clock; epigenetic clock; aging; senescence; reprogramming; methylome; DNA methylation; CpG-islands; induced pluripotent stem cells

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