Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Resolving Last-Mile Connectivity Issues in Botswana Using WiMAX IEEE802

Version 1 : Received: 8 September 2021 / Approved: 10 September 2021 / Online: 10 September 2021 (11:24:15 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 18 October 2021 / Approved: 18 October 2021 / Online: 18 October 2021 (12:55:20 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Mokeresete, M.; Esiefarienrhe, B.M. Can the WiMAX IEEE 802.16 Standard Be Used to Resolve Last-Mile Connectivity Issues in Botswana? Telecom 2022, 3, 150-163. Mokeresete, M.; Esiefarienrhe, B.M. Can the WiMAX IEEE 802.16 Standard Be Used to Resolve Last-Mile Connectivity Issues in Botswana? Telecom 2022, 3, 150-163.

Journal reference: Telecom 2022, 3, 10
DOI: 10.3390/telecom3010010


Amongst advantages of using Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) technology at the last-mile level as access technology include an extensive range of 50 km Line of Sight (LOS), 5 to 15 km Non-Line of Sight and few infrastructure installations compared to other wireless broadband access technologies. Despite positive investments in ICT fibre infrastructure by developing countries, including Botswana, servicing end-users is subjected to high prices and marginalised. The alternative, the Wi-Fi hotspot initiative by the Botswana government, falls far as a solution for last-mile connectivity and access. This study used OPNET simulation modeller 14,5 to investigate whether Botswana’s national broadband project could adopt WiMAX IEEE 802.16e as an access technology. Several developing countries in Africa and the world use WiMAX technology at access level and gain impressive results. The rampant lack of infrastructure development and the need to provide high-speed technology has necessitated such investigation. Therefore, using the simulation method, this paper evaluates the WiMAX IEEE 802.16e/m over three subscriber locations in Botswana. The results obtained indicate that the deployment of the WiMAX IEEE 802.16e standard can solve most of the deployment issues and access at the last-mile level. Although the findings suggest that WiMAX IEEE 802.16e is more suitable for high-density areas, it could also solve rural areas’ infrastructure development challenges and provide required high-speed connectivity access. However, unlike the Wi-Fi initiative, which requires more infrastructure deployment and less on institutional and regulatory frameworks, the deployment of WiMAX IEEE802.16e requires institutional and regulatory standards.


WiMAX IEEE 802.16e; National Broadband Project; rural area connectivity; Connectivity challenges in developing countries


MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Information Technology & Data Management

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