Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Multi-Start Algorithm for Solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Two-Dimensional Loading Constraints

Version 1 : Received: 6 September 2021 / Approved: 7 September 2021 / Online: 7 September 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Fava, L.P.; Furtado, J.C.; Helfer, G.A.; Barbosa, J.L.V.; Beko, M.; Correia, S.D.; Leithardt, V.R.Q. A Multi-Start Algorithm for Solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Two-Dimensional Loading Constraints. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1697. Fava, L.P.; Furtado, J.C.; Helfer, G.A.; Barbosa, J.L.V.; Beko, M.; Correia, S.D.; Leithardt, V.R.Q. A Multi-Start Algorithm for Solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Two-Dimensional Loading Constraints. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1697.

Journal reference: Symmetry 2021, 13, 1697
DOI: 10.3390/sym13091697

Abstract

This work presents a multi-start algorithm for solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem with two-dimensional loading constraints (2L-CVRP) allowing for the rotation of goods. Researches dedicated to graph theory and symmetry considered the vehicle routing problem as a classical application. This problem has complex aspects that stimulate the use of advanced algorithms and symmetry in graphs. The use of graph modeling of the 2L-CVRP problem by undirected graph allowed the high performance of the algorithm. The developed algorithm is based on metaheuristics such as the Constructive Genetic Algorithm (CGA), to construct promising initial solutions; a Tabu Search (TS), to improve the initial solutions on the routing problem; and a Large Neighborhood Search (LNS), for the loading subproblem. Although each one of these algorithms allowed to solve parts of the 2L-CVRP, the combination of these three algorithms to solve this problem was unprecedented in the scientific literature. In our approach, a parallel mechanism for checking the loading feasibility of routes was implemented using multi-threading programming to improve the performance. Additionally, memory structures, like hash-tables, were implemented to save time by storing and querying previously evaluated results for the loading feasibility of routes. For benchmarks, tests were done on well-known instances available in the literature. The results proved that the framework matched or outperformed most of the previous approaches. As the main contribution, this work brings higher quality solutions for large-size instances of the pure CVRP. This paper involves themes related to the symmetry journal, mainly complex algorithms, graphs, search strategies, complexity, graph modeling, and genetic algorithms. In addition, the paper especially focuses on topic-related aspects of special interest of the community involved in symmetry studies, such as, graph algorithms and graph theory.

Keywords

Routing; 2L-CVRP; Loading; Multithreading; Rotation; Tabu Search; Graph Theory.

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