Riddle, S.K.; Wilson, T.R.; Rajivmoorthy, M.; Eberhart, M.E. Principles Determining the Structure of Transition Metals. Molecules2021, 26, 5396.
Riddle, S.K.; Wilson, T.R.; Rajivmoorthy, M.; Eberhart, M.E. Principles Determining the Structure of Transition Metals. Molecules 2021, 26, 5396.
For the better part of a century researchers across disciplines have sought to explain the crystallography of the elemental transition metals: hexagonal close packed, body centered cubic, and face centered cubic in a form similar to that used to rationalize the structure of organic molecules and inorganic complexes. Pauling himself tried with limited success to address the origins of transition metal stability. These early investigators were handicapped, however, by incomplete knowledge regarding the structure of metallic charge density. Here we exploit modern approaches to charge analysis to first comprehensively describe transition metal charge density. Then, we use topological partitioning and quantum mechanically rigorous treatments of kinetic energy to account for the structure of the density as arising from the interactions between metallic tetrahedra. We argue that the crystallography of the early transition metals results from charge transfer from the so called “octahedral” to “tetrahedral holes” while the face centered cubic structure of the late transition metals is a consequence of antibonding interactions that increase octahedral hole kinetic energy.
Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules; Viral Theorem; Frontier Orbital Theory; Variational Principle; Transition Metal Structure
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