Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Efficacy Modeling of New Multi-Functional Benzophenone-Based System for Free-Radical/Cationic Hybrid Photopolymerization Using 405 nm LED

Version 1 : Received: 19 June 2021 / Approved: 21 June 2021 / Online: 21 June 2021 (10:37:40 CEST)

How to cite: Lin, J.; Lalevee, J. Efficacy Modeling of New Multi-Functional Benzophenone-Based System for Free-Radical/Cationic Hybrid Photopolymerization Using 405 nm LED. Preprints 2021, 2021060502 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0502.v1). Lin, J.; Lalevee, J. Efficacy Modeling of New Multi-Functional Benzophenone-Based System for Free-Radical/Cationic Hybrid Photopolymerization Using 405 nm LED. Preprints 2021, 2021060502 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0502.v1).

Abstract

This article presents, for the first time, the kinetics and the general conversion features of a 3-component system, BT(BC)/iodonium/Amine, based on proposed mechanism of Liu et al, for both free radical polymerization (FRP) of acrylates and the free radical promoted cationic polymerization (CP) of epoxides using the new multi-functional initiator of benzophenone–triphenylamine (BT). The additives, iodonium and EDB, have the dual function of (i) regeneration BT and (ii) produce of extra radicals for improved FRP and CP. Analytic formulas are developed to explore the new features including: (i) the conversion efficacy (CE) of FRP is an increasing function of the light intensity, the effective absorption coefficient, and the concentration sum of each of the components, BT, Iod, amine, for transient state. However, CE at steady-state is independent to the light intensity; (ii) the trifunctional hybrid structures of BT3 leads to larger light absorption than other types of BT; it also provides more active sites for the H-abstraction in the presence of EDB, leading to high CE; (iii) the efficacy of FRP is an increasing function of the amine (EDB) concentration, in contrast to that of CP having an opposite dependence; (iv) the consumption rate of BT3 in the BT3/ Iod/EDB system is slower than that of the BT3/Iod system due to photoredox catalytic cycle, and the larger initiator regeneration (RGE)in the three-component system. A comprehensive model is also proposed that the CE (for both FRP and CP) is governed by (NjKjbI), whereas more complex formulas are developed; where Kj is an effective rate constant proportional to the electron transfer quantum yield, and the combined effects of other coupling rate constants; b is an effective absorption coefficient given by the light absorption and excited state quantum yield.

Subject Areas

polymerization kinetics; conversion efficacy; free radical and cationic radical; benzophenone–triphenylamine amine; photoredox catalyst; 3D bioprinting

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