Preprint Concept Paper Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Oxygen Transport Triad in High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: a Perspective from the High Andes

Version 1 : Received: 16 June 2021 / Approved: 18 June 2021 / Online: 18 June 2021 (15:22:04 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Zubieta-Calleja, G.; Zubieta-DeUrioste, N. The Oxygen Transport Triad in High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Perspective from the High Andes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7619. Zubieta-Calleja, G.; Zubieta-DeUrioste, N. The Oxygen Transport Triad in High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Perspective from the High Andes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7619.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7619
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18147619

Abstract

Acute high altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad which involves the Pneumo-Dynamic Pump (Ventilation), the Hemo-Dynamic Pump (Heart and circulation), and Hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The increased hemoglobin at high altitude reduces the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the arterial oxygen content with respect to sea level. At high altitude, the acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high altitude Van-Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude the more tolerance to hypoxia. All organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to a high-altitude environment to survive. Reduction of pulmonary hypertension in HAPE through oxygen administration results in a favorable outcome.

Supplementary and Associated Material

http://altitudeclinic.com: Altitude Clinic at 3,500m in La Paz. Bolivia

Keywords

high altitude, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, physiologic adaptation, travel to high altitude cities, high altitude physiology, pulmonary hypertension, lung disease, hemoglobin, tolerance to hypoxia, oxygen content.

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