Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

High Mortality and Graft Loss After Infective Endocarditis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Case-Controlled Study From Two Centers

Version 1 : Received: 16 June 2021 / Approved: 18 June 2021 / Online: 18 June 2021 (11:17:15 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Tamzali, Y.; Danthu, C.; Aubry, A.; Brousse, R.; Faucher, J.-F.; El Ouafi, Z.; Rufat, P.; Essig, M.; Barrou, B.; Toure, F.; Tourret, J. High Mortality and Graft Loss after Infective Endocarditis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Case-Controlled Study from Two Centers. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1023. Tamzali, Y.; Danthu, C.; Aubry, A.; Brousse, R.; Faucher, J.-F.; El Ouafi, Z.; Rufat, P.; Essig, M.; Barrou, B.; Toure, F.; Tourret, J. High Mortality and Graft Loss after Infective Endocarditis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Case-Controlled Study from Two Centers. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1023.

Journal reference: Pathogens 2021, 10, 1023
DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10081023

Abstract

Purpose: Kidney Transplant Recipients (KTRs) tend to develop infections with characteristic epidemiology, presentation and outcome. While infective endocarditis (IE) is among such complications in KTRs, literature is scarce. We describe the presentation, epidemiology, and factors associated with IE in KTRs. Methods: We performed a retrospective case/control study which included patients from two centers. First episodes of definite or possible IE (Duke criteria), in adult KTRs from January 2007 to December 2018 were included, as well as two controls per case, and followed until December 31 2019. Clinical, biological, and microbiological data and the outcome were collected. Survival was studied using the Kaplan-Meier method. Finally, we searched for factors associated with the onset of IE in KTRs by the comparison of cases and controls. Results: Seventeen cases and 34 controls were included. IE was diagnosed after a mean delay of 78 months after KT, mostly on native valves of the left heart only. Pathogens of digestive origin were most frequently involved (six Enterococcus spp, three Streptococcus gallolyticus and one Escherichia coli), followed by Staphylococci (three cases of S. aureus and S. epidermidis each). Among the risk factors evaluated only age was significantly associated with the occurrence of IE in our study (63.8 years for cases vs. 55.6 years for controls, P=0.03) Patient and death-censored graft survival were greatly diminished five years after IE compared to controls being 50.3% vs. 80.6% (p<0.003) and 29.7% vs. 87.5% (p<0.002), respectively. Conclusion: IE in KTRs is a disease that carries significant risks both for the survival of the patient and the transplant.

Keywords

Infective endocarditis; Kidney Transplantation; Survival analysis; graft failure; transplant infectious diseases

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