Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Fungal Diversity and Aflatoxins in Cereals and Cassava-Based Foods From Ondo State, Nigeria

Version 1 : Received: 26 May 2021 / Approved: 27 May 2021 / Online: 27 May 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)

How to cite: Ekpakpale, D.O.; Kraak, B.; Meijer, M.; Ayeni, K.I.; Houbraken, J.; Ezekiel, C.N. Fungal Diversity and Aflatoxins in Cereals and Cassava-Based Foods From Ondo State, Nigeria. Preprints 2021, 2021050673 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0673.v1). Ekpakpale, D.O.; Kraak, B.; Meijer, M.; Ayeni, K.I.; Houbraken, J.; Ezekiel, C.N. Fungal Diversity and Aflatoxins in Cereals and Cassava-Based Foods From Ondo State, Nigeria. Preprints 2021, 2021050673 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0673.v1).

Abstract

Cereals and cassava-based foods serve as major dietary sources for several households in Nigeria. However, these foods are highly prone to contamination by moulds and aflatoxins owing to poor storage and vending practices. We therefore studied the fungal diversity of maize, cassava-based flour (pupuru) and rice vended in markets from Ondo state, Nigeria, and assessed the aflatoxin levels of these using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fungi were detected in 93 (88 %) of the 106 food samples. Molecular analysis of 65 representative isolates revealed 26 species belonging to 5 genera: Aspergillus (80.9 %), Penicillium (15.4 %) and Talaromyces (1.9 %) in the Ascomycota; Syncephalastrum (1.2 %) and Lichtheimia (0.6%) in Mucoromycota. Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species in the food samples. Aflatoxins were found in 98 % of the 42 representative food samples and about one half (49.8 %) exceeded the 10 μg/kg threshold adopted in Nigeria for total aflatoxins. Integrated mitigation options, including at post-harvest stages, are suggested to ensure consumer safety.

Subject Areas

Aflatoxin; Food safety; Maize; Mycology; Nigeria; Pupuru; Rice

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