Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

GPCRs of Diverse Physiologic and Pathologic Effects with Fingerprints in COVID-19

Version 1 : Received: 19 May 2021 / Approved: 20 May 2021 / Online: 20 May 2021 (09:28:37 CEST)

How to cite: Nejat, R.; Sadr, A.S.; Najafi, D.J. GPCRs of Diverse Physiologic and Pathologic Effects with Fingerprints in COVID-19. Preprints 2021, 2021050461 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0461.v1). Nejat, R.; Sadr, A.S.; Najafi, D.J. GPCRs of Diverse Physiologic and Pathologic Effects with Fingerprints in COVID-19. Preprints 2021, 2021050461 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0461.v1).

Abstract

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) belong to a large family of molecules eliciting different responses to a variety of signaling molecules. These receptors participate in various physiologic pathways such as metabolism, growth, immune responses, inflammation, vision, taste, olfaction, neurotransmission and even and pathologic responses including chronic inflammatory and vascular diseases. Receptors contributing to the biological responses of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are members of GPCR family. COVID-19-induced inflammatory cascade has been attributed to acute ACE2 downregulation and imbalance of proinflammatory ACE/AngII/AT1R and anti-inflammatory ACE2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas axes in favor of the former. Some of the receptors contributing to activities of proteins in RAS including AT1R, AT2R and Mas receptors are members of GPCR family. It is notable that these receptors induce their effects both through G protein and β-arrestin pathway; the former exerts temporary and the latter more sustained effects. In addition to the imbalance of GPCR responses contributing to RAS activities, it has been suggested that SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis might be attributed to the activation of GPCRs or modulating G-proteins involved in adenosine-CFTR regulation system and epithelial Na channel function.This article includes a minireview about the physiological functions of GPCRs and their contribution to COVID-19.

Keywords

ACE2; Ang II; AT1R; AT2R; angiotensin (1-7); β-arrestin; CFTR; COVID-19; ENaC; GPCR; MERS-CoV; SARS-CoV2; SARS-CoV; G-protein

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