Garbowski, T.; Gajewski, T.; Mrówczyński, D.; Jędrzejczak, R. Crushing of Single‐Walled Corrugated Board during Converting: Experimental and Numerical Study. Energies2021, 14, 3203.
Garbowski, T.; Gajewski, T.; Mrówczyński, D.; Jędrzejczak, R. Crushing of Single‐Walled Corrugated Board during Converting: Experimental and Numerical Study. Energies 2021, 14, 3203.
Corrugated cardboard is an ecological material, mainly because, in addition to virgin cellulose fibers also the fibers recovered during recycling process are used in its production. However, the use of recycled fibers causes slight deterioration of the mechanical properties of the corrugated board. In addition, converting processes such as printing, die-cutting, lamination, etc. cause micro-damage in the corrugated cardboard layers. In this work, the focus is precisely on the crushing of corrugated cardboard. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted, in which the different types of single-walled corrugated cardboards were pressed in a fully controlled manner to check the impact of the crush on the basic material parameters. The amount of crushing (with a precision of 10 micrometers) was controlled by a precise FEMat device, for crushing the corrugated board in the range from 10 to 70 % of its original thickness. In this study, the influence of crushing on bending, twisting and shear stiffness as well as a residual thickness and edge crush resistance of corrugated board was investigated. Then, a procedure based on a numerical homogenization, taking into account a partial delamination in the corrugated layers to determine the degraded material stiffness was proposed. Finally, using the empirical-numerical method, a simplified calculation model of corrugated cardboard was derived, which satisfactorily reflects the experimental results.
corrugated cardboard; converting; numerical homogenization; strain energy equivalence; finite element method; shell structures; transverse shear
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