Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Design and Applications of Multi-Frequency Holographic Subsurface Radar: Review and Case Histories

Version 1 : Received: 13 May 2021 / Approved: 14 May 2021 / Online: 14 May 2021 (10:56:20 CEST)

How to cite: Ivashov, S.I.; Capineri, L.; Bechtel, T.; Inagaki, M.; Razevig, V.; Gueorguiev, N.; Kizilay, A. Design and Applications of Multi-Frequency Holographic Subsurface Radar: Review and Case Histories. Preprints 2021, 2021050321 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0321.v1). Ivashov, S.I.; Capineri, L.; Bechtel, T.; Inagaki, M.; Razevig, V.; Gueorguiev, N.; Kizilay, A. Design and Applications of Multi-Frequency Holographic Subsurface Radar: Review and Case Histories. Preprints 2021, 2021050321 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0321.v1).

Abstract

Holographic subsurface radar (HSR) is currently not in widespread usage. This is due to an historical perspective in the ground penetrating radar (GPR) community that the high attenuation of electromagnetic waves in most media of interest, and the inability to apply time-varying gain to the continuous wave (CW) HSR signal precludes sufficient effective penetration depth. While it is true that the fundamental physics of HSR, with its use of a CW signal, does not allow amplification of later (i.e. deeper) arrivals in lossy media (as is possible with impulse subsurface radar — ISR), HSR has distinct some distinctive advantages. The most important of these is the ability to do shallow subsurface imaging with a resolution that is not possible with ISR. In addition, the design of an HSR system is simpler than for ISR due to the relatively low-tech transmitting and receiving antennae. This paper provides a review of the main principles of HSR through an optical analogy and describes possible algorithms for radar hologram reconstruction. We also present a review of the history of development of systems and applications for HSR of the “RASCAN” type which is possibly the only holographic subsurface radar that is produced in lots. Among the subsurface imaging and remote sensing applications considered are humanitarian demining, construction inspection, surveys of historic architecture and artworks, nondestructive testing of dielectric aerospace materials, security applications, paleontology, detection of wood-boring insect damage, and others. Each application is illustrated with relevant data acquired in laboratory and/or field experiments.

Subject Areas

Holographic subsurface radar; ground penetrating radar; nondestructive testing; cultural heritage objects; humanitarian demining; human vital signals monitoring; security applications.

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