Working Paper Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Extinction vs. Abstinence: A Review of the Molecular and Circuit Consequences of Post-Cocaine Extinction and Abstinence

Version 1 : Received: 29 April 2021 / Approved: 5 May 2021 / Online: 5 May 2021 (12:57:14 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Schwendt, M.; Knackstedt, L.A. Extinction vs. Abstinence: A Review of the Molecular and Circuit Consequences of Different Post-Cocaine Experiences. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6113. Schwendt, M.; Knackstedt, L.A. Extinction vs. Abstinence: A Review of the Molecular and Circuit Consequences of Different Post-Cocaine Experiences. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6113.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6113
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22116113

Abstract

The intravenous cocaine self-administration model is widely used to characterize the neurobiology of cocaine seeking. When studies are aimed at understanding relapse to cocaine-seeking, a post-cocaine abstinence period is imposed, followed by “relapse” tests to assess the ability of drug-related stimuli (“primes”) to evoke the resumption of the instrumental response previously made to obtain cocaine. Here we review this literature on the impact of post-cocaine abstinence procedures on neurobiology, finding that the prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the prefrontal cortex are recruited by extinction training, and are not part of the relapse circuitry when extinction training does not occur. Pairing cocaine infusions with discrete cues recruits the involvement of the NA which, together with the dorsal striatum, is a key part of the relapse circuit regardless of abstinence procedures. Differences in molecular adaptations in the NA core include increased expression of GluN1 and glutamate receptor signaling partners after extinction training. AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters are similarly affected by abstinence and extinction. Glutamate receptor antagonists show efficacy at reducing relapse following extinction and abstinence, with a modest increase in efficacy of compounds which restore glutamate homeostasis after extinction training. Imaging studies in humans reveal cocaine-induced adaptations that are similar to those produced after extinction training. Thus, while instrumental extinction training does not have face validity, its use does not produce adaptations distinct from human cocaine users.

Subject Areas

mGlu5; mGlu1, GluA1; Glu2; Narp; PSD-95; Homer; reinstatement; context; cue

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