Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Development of Immune System: Conservation of Species Identity

Version 1 : Received: 17 April 2021 / Approved: 20 April 2021 / Online: 20 April 2021 (12:56:45 CEST)

How to cite: Das, A. Development of Immune System: Conservation of Species Identity. Preprints 2021, 2021040543. Das, A. Development of Immune System: Conservation of Species Identity. Preprints 2021, 2021040543.


Mutual survival among different species of living organisms is quite common in our living world. That mutual survival can produce symbiotic or parasitic relationship among different living organisms. But at the same time, some relationships are harmful to the living organisms creating pathogenic relationships. Why some mutual survivals are beneficial, whereas some relationships are harmful creating different diseases in the living world? That harmful or pathological relationship producing different diseases in both the animal and plant kingdom has been extensively studied by the scientific community several times under the heading of ‘Host-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Disease pathogenesis’. But it is still not clear why some mutual survivals are beneficial or non-harmful, whereas some co-survivals are harmful producing different disease conditions in the living world mainly due to different immune mediated reactions or direct toxic effect of substances produced by an organism. To find the answer to this question, we have to search retrospectively to the evolutionary pattern of our diverse living world. If it is assumed that we have originated from Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) by different cumulative mutations, horizontal gene transfer, mobile genetic elements (MGE), transposition and natural selection, then it would be quite pragmatic to consider that two things were moving side by side in our ancient living world. On one hand it’s purpose was to create the diversification of both unicellular and multi-cellular living world and on the other hand it’s another purpose was to maintain the specific identity of the living organisms. It is the second purpose or the maintenance of specific identity that ultimately led to the development of Immune system.


Pathogenic relationship; Symbiotic relationship; LUCA; Horizontal gene transfer; Recombination; Transposition; Disease pathogenesis; CRISPR-Cas & Anti-CRISPR system


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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