Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Intertwined Life Histories and Transmission Ecologies of Plant, Arthropod, and Vertebrate Viruses

Version 1 : Received: 9 April 2021 / Approved: 12 April 2021 / Online: 12 April 2021 (12:42:38 CEST)

How to cite: Slingenbergh, J. The Intertwined Life Histories and Transmission Ecologies of Plant, Arthropod, and Vertebrate Viruses. Preprints 2021, 2021040295 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0295.v1). Slingenbergh, J. The Intertwined Life Histories and Transmission Ecologies of Plant, Arthropod, and Vertebrate Viruses. Preprints 2021, 2021040295 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0295.v1).

Abstract

It remains poorly understood how the life history strategies and transmission ecologies of viruses of plants, arthropods, and vertebrates are interrelated. The present analysis hinges on the virus transmission success. Virus transmission reflects where in the host-body viruses are retained or replicating. Plants, arthropods, and vertebrates share a protective outer-layer, a circulatory system, and reproductive organs. The latter enables vertical virus transmission and associates with virus-host mutualism. Two broadly opposing virus life history strategies are considered. Acute viruses tend to be replicative and are swiftly transmitted to the next host. Instead, persistent viruses keep virus replicating costs and host damage to a minimum. The intertwined life histories and transmission ecologies are accordingly pieced together, based on the virus mono- or instead dual-host tropism, the location of virus retention or replication on or in the host-body, the presence of cyclical or mechanical transmission by arthropods, and of horizontal and vertical host-to-host transmission modes. It is shown that in the arthropod and in the vertebrate animal host, virus circulation in the hemocoel or blood circulation goes hand-in-hand with vertical transmission. Instead, plant phloem viruses do not transmit via seed. The latter is the rule for the plant-only viruses. The risk management implications are discussed in brief.

Subject Areas

virus life history; transmission ecology; evolution; arthropod host; virus-host mutualism

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