Núñez, C.; Palavecino, A.; González, I.A.; Dreyse, P.; Palavecino, C.E. Effective Photodynamic Therapy with Ir(III) for Virulent Clinical Isolates of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pharmaceutics2021, 13, 603.
Núñez, C.; Palavecino, A.; González, I.A.; Dreyse, P.; Palavecino, C.E. Effective Photodynamic Therapy with Ir(III) for Virulent Clinical Isolates of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 603.
Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of health-associated infections (HAI), whose antibiotic treatments have been severely reduced. Besides, HAI bacteria may harbor pathogenic factors such as siderophores, enzymes, or capsules, which increase the virulence of these strains. Thus, new therapies such as antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) are needed. Method: A collection of 118 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were characterized susceptibility and virulence through the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Amk, Cfx, Cfz, Imp, Mer, and Pip-taz, and by PCR, the frequency of the virulence genes, K2, magA, rmpA, entB, ybtS, and allS. Susceptibility to innate immunity, such as human serum, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear cells, was tested. All the strains were tested for sensitivity to the photosensitizer PSIR-3 (4µg/mL) in a 17µW/cm2 for 30 min aPDI. Results: A significantly higher frequency of virulence genes in ESBL than non-ESBL bacteria were observed. The isolates of the genotype K2+, ybtS+, and allS+ display enhanced virulence since they showed higher resistance to human serum as well as to phagocytosis. All strains are susceptible to the aPDI with PSIR-3 decreasing viability in 3log10. The combined treatment with Cfx improved the aPDI to 6log10 for the ESBL strains. The combined treatment is synergistic as it showed an FIC index value of 0.15. Conclusions: The aPDT effectively inhibits clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, including the more risky strains of ESBL-producing bacteria and the K2+, ybtS+, and allS+ genotype. The aPDI with PSIR-3 is synergistic with Cfx.
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