Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Immunomodulation as a Potent COVID-19 Pharmacotherapy: Past, Present and Future

Version 1 : Received: 30 March 2021 / Approved: 1 April 2021 / Online: 1 April 2021 (13:34:49 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 29 June 2021 / Approved: 1 July 2021 / Online: 1 July 2021 (12:59:44 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Decsa Medika Hertanto, Henry Sutanto, Bayu Satria Wiratama & Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu (2021) Modulating the host immune response to fight against COVID-19: Where are we in 2021?, Virulence, 12:1, 1732-1736, DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2021.1943275 Decsa Medika Hertanto, Henry Sutanto, Bayu Satria Wiratama & Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu (2021) Modulating the host immune response to fight against COVID-19: Where are we in 2021?, Virulence, 12:1, 1732-1736, DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2021.1943275

Journal reference: Virulence 2021, 12, 1732-1736
DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2021.1943275

Abstract

In the first year of its appearance, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected more than 120 million individuals and killed 2 million people worldwide. The pandemic has also triggered numerous global initiatives to tackle the newly emerging disease, including the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the attempt to discover potential pharmacological therapies. Nonetheless, despite the success of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines development, the COVID-19 therapy remains challenging. Several repurposed drugs that were documented to be useful in small clinical trials have been shown to be ineffective in larger studies. Additionally, the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection displayed the predominance of cytokine storm in inducing multiorgan damage. Therefore, the potential benefits of both immune modulation and suppression in COVID-19 have been extensively discussed. Here, we reviewed the roles of immunomodulation as potential COVID-19 pharmacological modalities based on the existing data and proposed several new immunologic targets to be tested in the foreseeable future.

Keywords

COVID-19; immunomodulation; immunology; immune system; pharmacotherapy; coronavirus; drug repurposing

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