Kashaninejad, N.; Munaz, A.; Moghadas, H.; Yadav, S.; Umer, M.; Nguyen, N.-T. Microneedle Arrays for Sampling and Sensing Skin Interstitial Fluid. Chemosensors2021, 9, 83.
Kashaninejad, N.; Munaz, A.; Moghadas, H.; Yadav, S.; Umer, M.; Nguyen, N.-T. Microneedle Arrays for Sampling and Sensing Skin Interstitial Fluid. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 83.
Dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) is a novel source of biomarkers that can be considered as an alternative to blood sampling for disease diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, in vivo extraction and analysis of ISF are challenging. On the other hand, microneedle (MN) technology can address most of the challenges associated with dermal ISF extraction and is well-suited for long-term, continuous ISF monitoring as well as in situ detection. In this review, we first briefly summarise the different dermal ISF collection methods and compare them with MN methods. Next, we elaborate on the design considerations and biocompatibility of MNs. Subsequently, the fabrication technologies of various MNs used for dermal ISF extraction, including solid MNs, hollow MNs, porous MNs and hydrogel MNs, are thoroughly explained. In addition, different sensing mechanisms of ISF detection will be discussed in detail. Subsequently, we identify the challenges and propose the possible solutions associated with ISF extraction. A detailed investigation is provided for the transport and sampling mechanism of ISF in vivo. Also, the current in vitro skin model integrated with the MN arrays will be discussed. Finally, future directions to develop a point-of-care (POC) device to sample ISF are proposed.
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