Preprint Review Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs Ketosis-Inducing Diet

Version 1 : Received: 22 March 2021 / Approved: 23 March 2021 / Online: 23 March 2021 (13:45:24 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 25 March 2021 / Approved: 26 March 2021 / Online: 26 March 2021 (09:30:21 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 11 April 2021 / Approved: 12 April 2021 / Online: 12 April 2021 (13:06:01 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Napoleão, A.; Fernandes, L.; Miranda, C.; Marum, A.P. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1302. Napoleão, A.; Fernandes, L.; Miranda, C.; Marum, A.P. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1302.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2021, 13, 1302
DOI: 10.3390/nu13041302

Abstract

As Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCD) increase, preventive approaches become more crucial. In this review, Calorie Restriction (CR) effects on human beings were evaluated, comparing benefits and risks of different CR diets: classic CR vs ketosis-inducing diets, including Intermittent Fasting (IF), Classic Ketogenic Diet (CKD), Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD), Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) and Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet (SKMD). Special emphasis on Insulin Resistance (IR) was placed, as it mediates Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a risk factor for CNCD, and predicts MS diagnosis. CR is the most robust intervention known to increase lifespan and health span, with high evidence and known biochemical mechanisms. CR improves cardiometabolic risk parameters, boosts exercise insulin sensitivity response, and there may be benefits of implementing moderate CR on healthy young and middle-aged individuals. However, there is insufficient evidence to support long-term CR. CKD is effective for weight and MS management, and may have additional benefits such as prevention of muscle loss and appetite control. SKMD has extreme significance benefits for all the metabolic parameters studied. Studies show inconsistent benefits of IF compared to classic CR. More studies are required to study biochemical parameters, reinforce evidence, identify risks, and seek effective and safe nutritional CR approaches.

Keywords

diet; calorie restriction; ketosis; fasting; health span; lifespan; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; chronic non-communicable diseases; low-calorie; low-carb

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 12 April 2021
Commenter: Ana Paula Marum
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: The article was corrected after the first peer-revision. Some technical details and minor errors were corrected. Information on the effects of the Ketogenic Diet on the microbiome, cancer (Warburg effect) and neurodegenerative diseases was added. Also, information about intermittent fasting and the circadian rhythm was explained in more detail. The effects of the Ketogenic Mimicking Diet were also explained. Three figures were added to illustrate better the content of the article.
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