Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Graphene Oxide Topical Administration: Skin Permeability Studies

Version 1 : Received: 20 March 2021 / Approved: 22 March 2021 / Online: 22 March 2021 (15:47:21 CET)

How to cite: Silva, F.A.L.S.; Costa-Almeida, R.; Timochenco, L.; Amaral, S.I.; Pinto, S.; Gonçalves, I.C.; Fernandes, J.R.; Magalhães, F.D.; Sarmento, B.; Pinto, A.M. Graphene Oxide Topical Administration: Skin Permeability Studies. Preprints 2021, 2021030550 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0550.v1). Silva, F.A.L.S.; Costa-Almeida, R.; Timochenco, L.; Amaral, S.I.; Pinto, S.; Gonçalves, I.C.; Fernandes, J.R.; Magalhães, F.D.; Sarmento, B.; Pinto, A.M. Graphene Oxide Topical Administration: Skin Permeability Studies. Preprints 2021, 2021030550 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0550.v1).

Abstract

Nanostructured carriers have been widely used in pharmaceutical formulations for dermatological treatment. They offer targeted drug delivery, sustained release, improved biostability, and low toxicity, usually presenting advantages over conventional formulations. Due to its large surface area, small size and photothermal properties, graphene oxide (GO) has the potential to be used for such applications. Nanographene oxide (GOn) presented average sizes of 197.6 ± 11.8 nm, and a surface charge of -39.4 ± 1.8 mV, being stable in water for over 6 months. 55.5 % of the mass of GOn dispersion (at a concentration of 1 mg mL-1) permeated the skin after 6 h of exposure. GOn dispersions have been shown to absorb near-infrared radiation, reaching temperatures up to 45.7 °C, within mild photothermal therapy temperature range. Furthermore, GOn in amounts superior to those which could permeate the skin were shown not to affect human skin fibroblasts (HFF-1) morphology or viability, after 24 h of incubation. Due to its large size, no skin permeation was observed for graphite particles in aqueous dispersions stabilized with Pluronic P-123 (Gt-P-123). Altogether, for the first time, GOn potential as a topic administration agent and for delivery of photothermal therapy has been demonstrated.

Subject Areas

biocompatibility; carbon nanomaterials; graphite; phototherapy; skin disease.

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