Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and the Structure of the Primary Olfactory Projection

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2021 / Approved: 1 March 2021 / Online: 1 March 2021 (17:42:19 CET)

How to cite: Badiei, A.A. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and the Structure of the Primary Olfactory Projection. Preprints 2021, 2021030037 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0037.v1). Badiei, A.A. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and the Structure of the Primary Olfactory Projection. Preprints 2021, 2021030037 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0037.v1).

Abstract

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells that accompany axons from the olfactory epithelium to their targets in the olfactory bulb. They possess unique features that have made them the subject of much study as being potentially useful in cell-based therapeutic approaches to CNS repair. Investigation of OECs has demonstrated antigenic and morphological heterogeneity in their population. No marker specific to and selective for OECs have yet been identified, and many of the markers used are variably expressed by other glial cells. Even among OECs, these markers appear to vary in vivo (depending on their anatomical location, contact with other cells, and developmental timing) and in vitro. The variation across the population of OECs has compromised their isolation and characterization. It has also made the task of identifying meaningful subpopulations - with greater or lesser therapeutic utility - dependent on identifying the source of their variability. Such information would aid in both the harvest and experimental manipulation of OECs to optimize their therapeutic effect. One way to understand the nature of this variability is to seek its potential causes in vivo. This must begin with an examination of the structure of the olfactory nerve. Here, the structure and development of the primary olfactory projection are thoroughly reviewed with an emphasis on OECs and the cells with which they make contact. The relevant experimental results are also discussed. The weight of anatomical evidence indicates that the structural variations described in different locations and across species are mostly the result of spatiotemporal developmental factors. As such, the formation of the olfactory projection is mediated primarily by the source tissue, the olfactory epithelium. Cell-autonomous development is common elsewhere, and suits the evolutionary age and importance of olfaction, as well as its continued regenerative capacity. Our findings provide a more systematic anatomical understanding of this nerve. That understanding indicates that variation in axon ensheathment by OECs is an inherent feature arising from the flexibility of the ensheathing program. This perspective, along with the anatomical data reviewed here, can inform more carefully controlled laboratory investigations designed to uncover the detailed mechanisms governing OEC biology.

Subject Areas

olfactory; olfaction; glia; ensheathing cells; primary olfactory; cell-based; therapy

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